The aim of this study is to determine preservice science teachers’ misconceptions related to the structure and
conductivity of the mixtures. Study was carried out on 31 third-year preservice science teachers at the Ziya Gökalp Education
Faculty of Dicle University in 2004-2005 academic year. Data collection instruments were worksheets containing 5 openended
questions and semi-structured group interviews. The data of the study was analyzed by using the qualitative research
methods. After the evaluation of the data, the misconceptions of preservice science teachers pertaining to decomposition of
the compounds to its ions in the water medium, the role of the water in this process, mixtures and electrolytes were
There are different learning approaches to explain learning and retentions. Mayer’s Generative Multimedia
learning theory is one of them. Mayer (2001) considered a learning theory as consisting of different approaches to provide
learning and retention. Mayer’s Generative Multimedia Learning Theory, which depended on three different cognitive
theories (dual coding, limited capacity, active processing), suggests that learners participate in teaching and learning process
actively through selection, organizing and integration activities. According to this theory, there are seven principals
(multimedia principle, spatial contiguity principle, temporal contiguity principle, coherence principle, modality principle,
redundancy principle individual differences principle) to design effective multimedia learning. In this article, Mayer’s
Generative Multimedia Learning Theory is examined and seven principals of the theory for designing effective multimedia
learning is also explained.
The aim of this study is to determine the expectations of biology teachers for a more efficient biology
instruction. In order to reach this goal, a questionnaire was prepared to understand the opinion of biology teachers regarding
the education program, their colleagues and school directors, teacher training services, in-service trainings, and textbooks.
This questionnaire was applied to 369 biology teachers from 14 different cities of Turkey. The findings indicated that
teachers expected that curriculum of biology education is to be updated and class hours are to be rearranged. The findings
also indicated that the poor physical conditions of schools, insufficient background knowledge of students, negative attitudes
of students, and negative effects of university entrance exams are among the problems in implementing the curriculum. In
general, it is observed that biology teachers have good relations with each other and with school administration; they need inservice
training regarding biology education, education in general, computers and foreign language; and they believe that
textbooks should be scrutinized regarding their content and presentation.
Keywords: biology teachers, instructional program, pre-service training and in-service training, textbooks. [HTML]
Recent trends in English Language Teaching (ELT) research necessitates the study of coursebooks and
instructional materials from various perspectives including but not limited to their cultural, social, and psychological qualities
and effects (Kramsch 2000). Age, social class, and gender, as represented in coursebooks are studied because teachers and
students are exposed to many words and images effecting their knowledge, perceptions and world views. In this critical
research study, visual materials in two ELT coursebooks are studied by using the insight and perspective derived from
Cunningsworth (1995) who had previously examined how age, social class, and gender were represented in ELT
coursebooks. It is believed that by focusing on how characters are depicted, possible injustice and imbalance these visual
materials may transmit and strengthen stereotypical thinking in students’ mindsets will be articulated, verbalized, and
eventually solutions will be suggested. Findings revealed that many social imbalances were detectable in these visual
materials both quantitatively and qualitatively.
The questions for considerations were as follows. 1) What kinds of misconceptions and conceptual
difficulties freshman science teaching major have related to the circuits? 2) What were the effects of learning cycle method
on removing these misconceptions and conceptual difficulties? Participants were 76 students from two intact classes.
Students who registered two sections were randomly assigned into one of the two treatment groups; one group completed a
circuit unit with learning cycle method called experimental group (n1= 38), while the other completed a circuit unit with
traditional method called control group (n2=38). After the groups were formed, students in both groups were administered a
test called ‘Determining and Interpreting Resistive Electric Circuit Test’ (DIRECT) to measure students’ pre conceptual
understanding of electric circuits. Then students in the both groups completed an instruction designed for the groups.
Finally, all students were administered the DIRECT again as a posttest. Analyses of pretest results showed that students have
three misconceptions regarding electric circuits and three difficulties on understanding of physical aspects of electric circuits.
ANOVA results of posttest scores revealed that the learning cycle method was more effective to remove a misconception
called ‘the battery is a source of constant current’ when compared to the traditional method, but not for the others called
‘local reasoning’ and ‘sharing current’. Results also showed that the learning cycle method was effective to overcome all of
the students’ difficulties on understanding of physical aspects of electric circuits when compared to the traditional method.
Keywords: electric circuits, misconceptions, learning cycle method [HTML]
This study describes 6, 8 and 11 year–old pupils’ views about the condensation of water vapour in air. 300
Turkish students were the participants in this research. Two open-ended questions were asked to understand pupils'
understanding about condensation. As well as these written responses, 10 students of various year groups were interviewed.
Three main categories such as correct answers, partially correct answers and incorrect answers were used in the description of
results. The analysis of both written responses and interviews showed that most of the pupils had difficulties with the
understanding of condensation of water vapour in air. The findings of this study are important to design appropriate teaching
strategies in order to teach condensation concept in schools.
The aim of this article is to evaluate the English syllabus, having been applied in K12 schools since 1997. The
general features, the goals and objectives, the content (coursebook) used, educational environment and the evaluation
dimensions of the syllabus have been evaluated using descriptive model research in order to reveal the actual situation. 54
teachers working in 46 schools in five districts of Istanbul have been included in the sample. The data has been gathered by a
questionnaire prepared by the researcher, analysed and interpreted.
Keywords: syllabus, curriculum evaluation, teaching English as a second language, teacher opinions [HTML]
Teachers conducting laboratory activities should acquire some knowledge and skills during their university education. The aim of this study is to determine competences of preservice teachers about preparation of solutions and use of laboratory tools. The sample of this study consists of preservice teachers in the departments of chemistry education, elementary science and elementary mathematics education. These students have to take “General Chemistry Course” and “Chemistry Laboratory ” as part of their schooling. In order to collect data, a pencil-paper test was developed. The test was given to a total of 135 preservice teachers (45 in each department). The collected data showed that although preservice teachers took laboratory courses in their schooling, they made mistakes in tasks such as calculation, preparation of solution with proper laboratory tools, taking into account states of matter in solution preparations and so forth. Based on the results, some suggestions are made.
Keywords: preparation of solution, laboratory, teacher training. [HTML]
The purpose of this study is to investigate the solution strategies of elementary school students on items
measuring proportional reasoning skills and to investigate how these strategies are affected by question types. Proportional
reasoning test was administered to 295 elementary school students from four different elementary schools. The results
revealed that the most commonly used strategy for missing value type of questions was cross multiplication algoritm; for
quantitative comparison type of questions was unit rate; for non-proportional type of questions was additive strategy and for
inverse proportion type of question was inverse proportion algorithm. For qualitative comparison type of questions, students
have shown some evidence that they were thinking proportionally but they did not use any specific solution strategy.
Bu çalısmada, okul öncesi ögretmen adaylarının çevreyi koruma konusunda ne kadar bilinçli oldukları, çevrenin
korunmasına yönelik davranıslar ve bu davranıslara etki eden degiskenler ele alınmıstır. Ayrıca bu ögretmen adaylarının
çevrenin korunmasına yönelik bilgilerinin ve çevreninin korunmasına yönelik olumlu tutumlarının, çevrenin korumasına
yönelik davranıslar üzerine etkili olup olmadıkları arastırılmıs ve tutarsızlıklar ortaya konulmaya çalısılmıstır. Okul öncesi
egitimde nasıl bir çevre egitimi olması gerektigi sorusuna da cevap aranmıstır.
Teachers are one of the most important elements in the teaching-learning process. A well-educated teacher
refers to one who has a good education in his subject area, general culture and teaching. In Turkey, eleven universities have
biology teacher training programs. It is thought that these programs should have a certain unique standard, and that such a
common standard is significant for integrating into the EU educational system. Thus, the aim of this study is to compare and
contrast the curricula of these programs, and the data gained is expected to improve the development of curricula. The
comparison includes the following points: courses on subject area, elective subject area courses, lab courses, courses on
teacher training, elective courses on teacher training, general culture courses, the titles of the courses, the number of courses,
the number of total class hours in week, the number of total credits, placement of courses in semesters. The findings of the
study indicate that there are variations across programs except for the courses on teacher training.
The purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent the characteristics of constructivist learning
environment existed in English Language Teaching (ELT) Methodology II courses and whether students’ perception of the
learning environment differed according to certain variables. The subjects of the study were 410 students taking ELT
Methodology II course in the ELT departments of four universities. The results of the study revealed that the students
perceived the learning environment to be often constructivist in nature. It was also found that students’ perception of the
learning environment differed according to the university they were attending, their expected average score from the course
and perceived competency in English, but did not differ according to their sex and high school background.
Keywords: constructivism, learning environment, constructivist learning environment, English language teaching [HTML]
The purpose of this study was to investigate the 9th-grade students’ understandings of the nature of scientific
knowledge. The study also aimed to investigate the differences in students’ understanding of the nature of scientific
knowledge by gender, and school types. A total of 575 ninth grade students from four different school types (General High,
Anatolian High, Vocational High and Super Lycee) participated in the study. Data were collected utilizing an adapted version
of the Nature of Scientific Knowledge (NSKS). Data were analyzed by using MANOVA. Results revealed statistically
significant differences in the student’s perceptions of nature of scientific knowledge by gender and school types. It was also
found that many of the participants had inadequate understanding of nature of scientific knowledge.
Keywords: scientific knowledge, nature of science, school type, gender [HTML]
The integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) into teaching and learning processes
is a complex process involving a lot of dynamics such as teachers, students, ICT coordinator, school management, curriculum
and school culture. Therefore, handling and investigating ICT applications within its context seems important. It can be
claimed that Activity Theory serves opportunities on one hand about how ICT can be integrated into learning environments
and on the other hand to explore events, activities, contents and the interpersonal processes in the ICT using contexts from a
holistic view. For this aim, in the study, by explaining the structure and the main principles of the Activity Theory, an
opinion about how one can use Activity Theory for investigating ICT integration into teaching-learning process from a
holistic perspective has been attempted.
Keywords: activity theory, information and communication technologies, integration [HTML]
The research tested the efficacy of 12 hours affirmations for Communication Skills Training Program using
10 female, 6 male adults Ss (aged 25-43) who work in different banks. Communication Skills Evaluation Scale (CSES) and
Personal Data Form were used to collect data. Findings showed that this program was effective to change SCES scores
positively. It is thought that the results of program can be replicated.
Keywords: communication skills, adults, communication skills training program [HTML]
The aim of this study is to determine the competency of high school biology teachers regarding use of
instructional tools in teaching biology. Biology teachers’ cognitive competencies, their attitudes toward instructional-tool use
have been determined. Survey method has been used in this study. 369 biology teachers from different regions of Turkey
have been included in the sampling group. An achievement test to assess the teachers’ cognitive competency have been
developed. The reliability of this test has been calculated by KR20 and reliability coefficient has been found as 0.76. The
attitude scale, developed to determine teachers’ attitudes regarding the use of instructional tools in teaching has been
calculated by Cronbach and reliability coefficient has been found as 0.86. The results have indicated that teachers who
participated in the study have a positive attitude toward the use of instructional tools and they have 57.3% of the behaviors
that are related to the use of instructional tools.
Keywords: biology teaching, use of instructional tool, teacher competency. [HTML]
The aim of this study was to find out whether there is a significant difference between the teaching program
based on interdisciplinary creative problem solving skills and the students’ attainment of creative problem solving skills. The
participants were seventh grade students in Namık Kemal Primary School. This study used qualitative research methods. In
the analyses of the data, as well as for descriptive statistics, dependent samples’ t-test was used to find out the impact of
experimental procedures. The study revealed that experimental group shows significant differences in their attainment of
creative problem solving skills.
Keywords: disiplinlerarası yaklasım, yaratıcı problem çözme, bilgi ve iletisim teknolojileri [HTML]
Construction of the abstract concepts in chemistry without having error is one of the most important factors
that effect students’ achievement in chemistry classes. So, it is very significant to determine existing misconceptions and
discuss the reason for them and also prepare new materials depending on these findings for remedying and preventing
formation of students’ misconceptions. Therefore, especially in the recent years, it is seen that the research according to
active learning depending on constructivism has become foreground. One of the subjects in which students have some
misconceptions and misunderstandings is “Covalent Bonding” in the Structure of Matter Unit in 9th grade chemistry
curriculum. In this study, a pre-test consisting of 5 open-ended and 9 multiple-choice, totaling 14 questions, was applied to
32 students following the learning of chemical bonding. In addition, we interviewed some of the students to define their
existing misconceptions pertinent to this subject. Then, a new guide material was developed based on constructivist model
about Covalent Bonding. In the guide material, reasoning was encouraged; images, photographs and graphics about the
subject as well as cooperative learning and experimental activities, computer animations and reading passages were given.
After the application of the guide material, a post-test was administered, and students and teachers were interviewed about
the guide material. Post-test revealed that the developed guide material was successful in remediation of the determined
misconceptions in Ionic Bonding.
Keywords: misconception, chemical bonding, concepts of covalent bonding, active learning, constructivism [HTML]
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Heat unit developed according to the principles of
Multiple Intelligence Theory and that with traditionally designed science instruction on students’ science achievement,
attitudes toward science as a school subject and retention of knowledge. This experimental research was conducted in the
second term of 2002-2003 educational year with fifth graders in Buca Meskure Samlı Elementary School and lasted for five
weeks. Two classes were randomly selected. The experimental group was instructed through multiple intelligence strategies
whereas the control group was utilized by traditional methods. The analyses with t-test for independent groups and ANOVA
for Repeated Measures revealed the following: There is significant difference between the effect of instructional strategies
used according to the principles of Multiple Intelligence Theory and that of traditional designed science instruction in the
favor of the experimental group on understanding of science knowledge and on students’ retention of knowledge. On the
other hand, no effect in terms of students’ general attitudes toward science was found.
Mathematical reasoning provides an opportunity for permanent and developing mathematics. In classrooms,
flawed reasoning can be often encountered. Although flawed reasoning leads to wrong answers, this reasoning is an
important clue for students’ mathematical thinking. This reasoning can be met, particulary for the students who reason
correctly, and for the crucial mathematical concepts, and it leads us to the sources of the misconceptions. This study
attempted to respond to the question of “What kind of flawed reasoning styles had the elementary students?”. This study was
conducted with 90 students from Çubuk Atatürk Elementary School. The subjects were required to solve four problems
related to the flawed reasoning in mathematics. The flawed reasoning among the students were encountered in the case of
having tendencies to the common solution types of the students and ending the reasoning process without fully completing it.
Generally, the poor reasoning was at the highest level, this was followed by the flawed reasoning, and the correct reasoning
type was at the lowest level. There was no remarkable difference between the classrooms.
This study examines the conditions of lab applicability of experiments that may affect student success in the
learning of genetics in biology classes at secondary school curriculum. The results of the questionnaire, which was designed
to elicit how experiments are treated in class, revealed three groups of students: those who a) apply experiments in labs,
b) study experiments on a conceptual basis, and c) are not neither exposed to the experiments nor taught experiments
conceptually. In the second part of the study, whether these groups differ significantly with regard to academic achievement
is investigated. The results revealed that there is a correlation between the effective learning and the application of
experiments in labs. Furthermore, there is significant difference in the average success of students between group (a) on one
hand, and (b) and (c) on the other.
Keywords: biyology education, experimental
Use of literature is important in foreign language teaching for the development of students’ vocabulary and
perceptions, and to make students’ language skills fluent. However, because of its content, novel has often been discarded
while using it in the classroom. On the contrary, along with some shorter forms, using those novels that are applicable to
students’ conditions can cause productivity in foreign language classrooms. The novel’s teaching dimensions is included in
this study by giving a novel from German youth literature as an example. It is concluded that despite its content, as long as
they are well-planned in terms of their target, technical and teaching properties, novels can be used successfully in foreign
Keywords: novel, literature, foreign language teaching, youth literature [HTML]
The aim of this study was to examine the 4th and 5th grade students’ learning and using of problem solving
strategies. In this experimental study, first experimental and control groups were chosen from 4th and 5th grade students
attending Süleyman Cüra Primary School in Bursa. Strategies were determined as guess and check, look for a pattern, make a
drawing, work backward, simplify the problem and make a systematic list. During the experimental study, every strategy was
taught to experimental group and students were asked to solve each problem on these strategies. Then, a pretest, posttest and
retention test was applied. Students in the control group attended their traditional courses. The findings of the study are as
follows: 1- It was observed that 4th and 5th grade students can informally use problem solving strategies without any training. 2- Strategies
can be learned by 4th and 5th grade students and training had a positive effect on students’ problem solving success
Keywords: problem, problem solving, problem solving strategies, nonroutine problem [HTML]
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gender and grade level on students’ logical thinking
abilities. A total of 174 sixth, seventh, and eighth-grade students participated in the study. Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT)
was administered to determine students’ reasoning abilities. A two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was
conducted to determine the effect of grade level and gender on five reasoning modes. Results revealed a statistically
significant effect of grade level and gender on reasoning ability.
Within the scope of this study, 13 experiments in the 1st class chemistry book (approved by the Ministry of
National Education) used in high schools were chosen and analyzed. Sufficiency of the precautionary data about the chemical
substances used therein from the human health and laboratory safety points of view was investigated and relevant suggestions
were made to incorporate these data in the curriculum. The “Security Test for Science Laboratory” including 36 multiple
choice questions taken out from the “Science Safety Handbook for California Public Schools (1999)” and developed after
having been translated into Turkish and the “Test on Dangerous Features of Chemical Substances” comprising 9 questions
were applied to 60 ninth graders so as to determine whether the students perform experiments in school and to assess their
current knowledge on the points to be taken into consideration about the chemical substances used and the basic rules
regarding laboratory medium. The evaluations pointed out that 48 students out of 60 performed experiments within the scope
of the chemistry lessons in their schools, knowledge percentage of the students were to be ranging from 41.7% to 98.3% and
from 22.8% to 61.7% for “Security Test for Science Laboratory” and “Test on Dangerous Features of Chemical Substances”
Keywords: high school 1st class chemistry book, dangerous chemical substances, safe study [HTML]
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Information Processing Model (IPM) based lesson on
preservice science teachers’ achievement in magnetism. A Magnetism Achievement Test (MAT) was developed by the
researcher for this purpose. Measuring tool and teaching materials were tested in the pilot study that was conducted with 91
students. All the revisions were done according to feedback. The main study was conducted with 110 freshman preservice
science teachers. Students instructed with traditional lecturing were tagged as control group, whereas students instructed with
the IPM as the experimental group. SPSS was used to analyze the data. Results of the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)
showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of experimental and control group
Keywords: physics education, information processing model, memory, magnetism, traditional lecturing method [HTML]
In this research, reading comprehension strategies used by the sixth, seventh and eighth graders and their level
of reading comprehension strategy use were examined with regard to gender and grade. The data were collected based on The
Reading Comprehension Scale. The sample consists of the sixth, seventh and eighth graders (n=858). Findings revealed that
(a) the sixth, seventh and eighth graders guess the meanings of unknown words, answer questions related to the text, read
aloud, try to find important parts in the text, use reading comprehension strategies more often than other strategies, (b) the
students’ level of reading comprehension strategy use varies with regard to gender in favour of females, (c) female students
in the sixth, seventh and eighth grade use effective comprehension strategies more often in comparison with female students
in the eighth grade, and (d) seventh graders use reading comprehension strategies more often than eight graders.