This longitudinal study has two phases: The first phase completed in 2007-2008 academic term was an attempt to probe into pragmatic comprehension levels of second language (L2) learners as measured by the recognition of speech acts and conversational implicatures (Alagözlü & Büyüköztürk, 2009). Using One Group Pretest-Posttest Research Design and considering the first measurement as a pretest, in the second phase of the study conducted in 2010-2011 academic year, pragmatic comprehension levels of the Turkish learners of English are tested once more after three and a half years of formal instruction with a paired t-test of pre and post-scores of the same learners, which did not indicate a statistically significant difference between the scores (p>0,05), therefore, an improvement between the scores of two measurements of pragmatic comprehension of speech acts and conversational implicatures in aural discourse.
This study has been carried out to determine the effect of self directed learning on student’s success, self-directed learning readiness in laboratory, attitudes towards laboratory skills and chemistry laboratory anxiety in chemistry laboratory. Sampling group of the study is composed of 33, 5th grade students studying at Hacettepe University, Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education, Chemistry Education Programme. Research pattern of pre-test post-test has been used in the research for one group. Self directed learning in laboratory has been planned according to the process of project based learning. “Chemistry Success Test”, “Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety Scale”, “Attitude towards Laboratory Skills Scale” and “Scale of Self-Directed Learning Readiness in Laboratory” have been used to collect data. Hypotheses of the study have been test using dependent sample t-test and multiple regression analysis. The results of the study have demonstrated that self-directed learning in laboratory has a meaningful contribution to chemistry success, self-directed learning readiness in laboratory and chemistry laboratory anxiety of students.
Keywords: Self-directed learning, self-directed learning in laboratory, laboratory anxiety, self-directed learning readiness in laboratory, attitude towards laboratory skills. [HTML]
This study tries to find out the effects of university instructors’ nonverbal immediacy skills on the student perception of cognitive learning by using the “Nonverbal Immediacy Scale for Observers” (NIS-O) developed by Richmond, McCroskey and Johnson in 2003. The present study is the first use of 26-item NIS-O instrument in cross-cultural literature examining the relationship of “instructors’ nonverbal immediacy behaviors” and “student perception of cognitive learning”, which makes its findings rather important for the cross-cultural nonverbal immediacy literature. The survey was conducted with the participation of fourth year undergraduate business administration students from Turkey, USA, and China. Findings of the study showed that outstanding instructors in classroom teaching are rather competent in nonverbal immediacy skills. While American and Turkish instructors appeared to be immediate at the same level, Chinese instructors exhibited relatively low scores on immediacy scale. Findings also showed a statistically significant and positive correlation between instructors’ nonverbal immediacy behaviors and perceived cognitive learning level of students in Turkey and USA.
This study was carried out in order to ascertain how the web-assisted method of teaching how to produce men's trousers, part of the Menswear Production lesson, affected the success of the students. In order to determine whether or not there was any significant difference between the marks in the preliminary and final tests ANOVA was used in the "Success Test" to analyze repeated values given for a single factor; while the t- test was used for Independent Sample Groups when determining "Product Success" points. According to the research findings, when the group averages are taken into consideration the average mark in the post-trial knowledge test for those students given web-assisted education was higher than the average mark for students taught using traditional methods. There was a significant difference seen in the marks for the production of men's trousers in web-assisted learning.
The aim of this study is to investigate accidents occurred in elementary science laboratories and reveal reasons of these accidents. Some suggestions were developed about how teachers’ could behave at the time of laboratory accidents which could be frequently. The present study is a case study included quantitative study. The accidents to be take placed in the local and national newspapers were searched and discussed over the cases. When the news were analyzed, it was seen that the accidents related with explosions of experiment tubes, spirit, steel tubes and ampul, diffusion of chemicals, gas rising and breaking of mercury tubes. Mainly reasons of these accidents are; absence or misconceptions of knowledge of characteristics of chemicals, to not know how intervening when chemicals are spilled, carelessness during experiment, students’ using of experiment equipments without teachers’ control and to not know how developing a behaviour manner toward experimental hazards.
This study set out to explore the extent of the efficiency of the courses in which PowerPoint presentations were used by the instructors. The participants of the study were the 3th grade students (282) at Faculty of Vocational Education, Gazi University. The quantitative data of the study were collected through questionnaire with a 5-point scale and the qualitative data of the study were collected through a semi-structured interview form. Quantitative data were analyzed using % and f, and the qualitative data were content-analyzed.
According to the results of the study, the opinions of the students on the efficiency of the courses with PPP center on the unity of the presentations and the conformity to the objectives of the course. On the other hand, their opinions on the inefficiency of the courses with PPP centered around the conduct of the courses solely with PPP and not being supported by other materials, thus being boring. Besides, most of the PPPs prepared irrespective of the principles of design and content. Instructors with efficient PPPs are fewer in number. The opinions of the students suggest that efficient PPPs make learning more lasting.
Prospective teacher’s emotions and perceptions are changing so rapidly due to recent developments in technology as well as changes in social and economic structures of the societies. In that respect, continuous investigation of students’ needs and their characteristics is very important. The main aim of this study is to develop a scale to measure the occupational anxiety of prospective teachers and 283 prospective teachers at faculty of education were participated in it. Factor analysis was applied for the validity of this scale that consisted of 45 items. Analysis result were indicated eight factors. The corrected item total correlations were ranged between 0.23 and 0.73, whereas the Cronbach Alfa coefficients were between 0.94 and 0.67. Also, t-tests for the item average means of the bottom and top 27% of the groups were presented significant differences between those groups.
This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of learning activities based on case-based learning over traditionally designed chemistry instruction on eleventh grade students’ understanding of solubility equilibrium. The subjects of this study consisted of 63 eleventh grade students from two intact classes of an urban high school instructed with same chemistry teacher. Each teaching method was randomly assigned as control and experimental group. The experimental group received case-based learning, in which real life cases were discussed via small group discussions; the control group received traditional instruction in which lecturing and discussion was carried out. The results showed that case-based learning instruction produced significantly greater achievement in understanding of solubility equilibrium concepts in comparison with traditional instruction. Also, the results revealed that students had misconceptions related to chemical equilibrium. According to the results of this study, case-based learning is effective for elimination of misconceptions and the enhancement of students’ understanding.
Keywords: case based learning, misconceptions, solubility equilibrium. [HTML]
The purpose of this research is to determine the possible effects of the constructivist approach which is applied by teachers, on classroom management. Twenty teachers who were chosen by means of extreme sampling and snowball sampling in Şereflikoçhisar, district of Ankara, participated to the research. The data were collected through an interview guide which was developed based on the related literature and experts opinions. Data were analyzed by using NVivo 2 qualitative data analysis program. According to the results, comparing with the traditional approaches, the use of the constructive approach gives more role and responsibilities to the teachers in classroom management and activities of classroom management dimensions appear to change to the constructivist approach parallelly.
Keywords: constructivist approach, classroom management, primary school [HTML]
The purpose of this study is to highlight the acquired knowledge concerning the acidic and basic solution and recognition of acid and base, and difference according to knowledge to be taught at the level of upper secondary school (grades 11-12) for both French and Turkish students. Data was collected, before and after the relevant teaching was conducted, using a questionnaire containing four open-ended questions from 237 French students, and 207 Turkish students. The results showed that after the received teaching, Turkish students defined acidic and basic solutions using the empirical register. However, most of French students refer to models register. Therefore, this study pointed out that the knowledge relating to acidic and basic solutions taught at grade 9, is more mobilized by grade 11 students than grade 12 students.
The main purpose of this study is to compare the level of using metacognitive strategies during study between high an low achieving prospective classroom teachers. Qualitative method was selected as design of the study. In addition, a semi-structured interview was also done with selected prospective classroom teachers to learn about how they use metacogtive strategies in their learning. Population of the study was prospective primary school education studying at the Kafkas Faculty of Education. A sample consisting of 30 prospective teachers was selected from the sample to interview. In analyzing qualitative data, content analysis technique was preferred. In planning, organizing, self-monitoring and self-evaluating dimensions of the metacognition, views of the high achieving prospective teachers were found to be more positive than those of low achieving ones.
Leader is an important therapeutic power in counseling groups. In this study, the effect of leaders’ disclosing and not disclosing themselves in counseling sessions was examined. It was aimed to reveal the effects of self-disclosure behaviors of leader models on the counseling process and participants based on the views of the people attending the sessions. To this end, psychological counseling sessions were held for 12 weeks with two separate groups each including ten members. One of the groups was led by a group leader who discloses him/herself, while the other was led by a not self-disclosing leader. At the end of the sessions members were asked two open-ended questions about the leader model of their counseling. The data were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that that for the leader to disclose himself had positive therapeutic effects on the group including modeling, encouraging, trust in group, and creating attachment, interaction and solidarity feelings. Moreover, lack of self-disclosure by the leader has positive effects such as not spending the group time or perceiving the process more professional.
Keywords: self-disclosure, leader, group counseling [HTML]
Provision of Social Relationship Scale was developed to measure perception of social support according to provision of social relationship by Turner, Frankel & Levin (1983). The purpose of the present study was conducted to determine the validity and reliability of the Provision of Social Relations Scale in Turkish society. The reliability study of the Provision of Social Relations Scale on 1070 primary school students revealed an internal consistency of Cronbach Alpha .81 and a test-retest reliability coefficient of .85. Family support subscale internal consistency of .74, friend support subscale internal consistency of .75 According to the confirmatory factor analysis which is applied for reliability, it was determined that Provision of Social Relations Scale can be accepted as a valid and reliable tool which can be used for primary school secondary degree students.
Keywords: social support, provision of social relations, primary school secondary degree students. [HTML]
The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of individual and group study in multi-media learning environments on students’ comprehension of what is being listened/watched. At the same time, the role of students’ empathic levels in achievement and its interaction with individual/group study is investigated. For this study, a multimedia-learning environment for 4th grade Turkish class was developed. In the environment, ELVES method was implemented. For the study, while some participants studied the material individually, others studied in groups of four that were formed randomly. According to the results of empathic tendency tests, the participants were grouped as low, middle and high empathic tendency level students. t test indicated that individual study improved achievement more than group study did in multimedia learning environments. To investigate the role of empathic tendency, analysis of variance was conducted. The results showed that the high empathic tendency group over-achieved other students in individual study condition. In group study condition, there was not statistically important difference among students with different levels of empathic tendency and similar tendencies were found in both individual and group study conditions. The results showed no significant interaction between empathic tendency level and study type.
Keywords: multimedia, individual vs group study, emphatic tendency. [HTML]
Going abroad and getting university education there as Erasmus students at Turkish Universities are becoming more and more popular nowadays. EFL students usually choose Erasmus exchange programs in order to gain linguistic, cultural and individual benefits. They aim to improve their intercultural skills in the medium of the host countries’ culture. The growing interest in learning different cultures and languages in the world brings with it the question whether mobility programs are efficient or not for university students. The present study was conducted to investigate if the university students who joined mobility programs changed their point of view about different cultures and raised their language and cultural awareness of different countries. This study employs qualitative methods to gather the data via semi-structured interviews with Erasmus students at Akdeniz University, Faculty of Education, and ELT Department joining mobility programs at least 1 term long.
Keywords: mobility programs, intercultural competence, cultural diversity, language development [HTML]
It was investigated in this study that the effects of different feedback types on success and retention. In 2007-2008 academic years, 80 eighth grade students participated to study. Participants assigned to 4 groups (verbal, visual, verbal+visual, control). Subjects were asked to perform lay-up and jumping shot at the basketball lesson. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U Test were used. According to cognitive domain, there were no significant differences between verbal and control; visual and control group and differences between the other groups were significant (p<0.05). According to jump shoot success; there were no significant differences between visual and control; visual and verbal group, differences between the other groups were significant (p<0.05). According to lay-up success; there were no significant differences between visual and control, differences between the all other groups were significant (p<0.05). According to jump shoot retention; there were no significant differences between verbal and visual, differences between the all other groups were significant (p<0.05). According to lay-up retention; differences between the all groups were significant (p<0.05). As a result, different feedback types were effective on physical education lessons, verbal+visual groups was the most effective way.
In this study it is aimed to evaluate the classroom management techniques of teachers of Science and Technology subject in the Northern Cyprus according to the perceptions of students and to reveal the attitude of students towards science. The participants in this study are 589 primary education students in four different types of schools which are all located in Nicosia. The correlational survey model has been conducted in this research which is a quantitative study. The instrument consists of two sections which are the Science Attitude Scale and the Classroom Management Evaluation Scale. For the reliability and validity purposes, the data has been analyzed and the Cronbach Alpha value was found. T-Test and Mann-Whitney U-Test have been used as the statistical analysis. This study indicated that the perceptions of students towards the teachers’ behaviors in class are quite positive according to the all variables.
Keywords: classroom management techniques, science and technology, attitude to science [HTML]
That is the fact that conflicts occuring among teachers and among teachers-school administrators are inevitable at schools. It is very important for educational institutions managing the conflicts with the most effective ways and bringing effective solutions to conflicts for being productive. In this study, teachers’ perceptions related effectiveness levels of conflict management methods used by school administrators have searched out and these perceptions have examined in terms of the number of teachers at schools and school type. The levels of effectiveness of the methods used at conflicts between teachers and teachers-school managers have revealed and compared with each other. The study has performed with 255 teachers who work at secondary schools in province of Uşak. Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory has been adapted to Turkish by Gümüşeli (1994) and has used. As a result, it has found that the levels of the effectiveness of methods used in conflicts between teachers and school managers-teachers differs from each other and both the number of teachers at schools and school types have changed the teachers’ perceptions.
Keywords: organizational conflict, conflict management, conflict management methods, conflicts between teachers, conflicts between administrators and teachers [HTML]
The whole idea behind this article is to show how to incorporate CALLA as a process approach into EFL reading and writing classes to help the readers (1) widen their cognitive skills of learning as effective EFL learners, (2) improve their interpretative skills by acquiring the accepted strategies of critical reading, (3) enhance awareness of life, for they are private individuals with their distinctive features and unique identities which make them different, irreplaceable and beautiful, and (4) enjoy ample opportunity for developing a sense of self-concept and self-esteem in order to empathize better with the significant other while engaging themselves in social/affective strategies for communicative purposes. In the practicum will be the application of CALLA presented in consecutive stages to the reading of Rita Dove’s poem entitled “Parsley” in a typical EFL setting where direct exposure to L2 is considerably limited.
The purpose of this study was to compare two different rating scales to be used in student evaluation of instructors in terms of psychometric properties, mainly halo and leniency effects, and user reactions. A behaviourally anchored rating scale (BARS) and a graphic rating scale (GRS) were developed and administered to a total sample of 270 college students (NBARS = 126; NGRS = 144) rating their real-life instructors. Although neither format had a clear psychometric advantage over the other, the GRS format was found to be slightly better than the BARS format in terms of resistance to halo. Furthermore, the BARS format received less favourable user reactions than did the GRS format. Considering the differential resources required for the development of a behaviour-based rating scale, the present results indicated the GRS format as being preferable to the BARS format. The implications of the findings are discussed along with suggestions for future research.
Keywords: rating formats, student evaluations, user reactions, halo, leniency [HTML]
This study (both qualitative and quantitative in nature) examines the metaphors students at a university chose to describe the roles of foreign language teachers and compares metaphors chosen by teachers of English at the same university. Findings indicate that the same three roles (conductor, shopkeeper, and entertainer) were favored most by both the participating students and teachers though they were ranked differently. A deeper analysis of the primary metaphors chosen by the participants suggests that there is a significant discrepancy between teachers’ and students’ perceptions. While students preferred a learner-centered approach, teachers opted for a teacher-centered teaching. Implications for classroom practices indicate that teachers need to pay closer attention to their students’ needs, difficulties and interests.
Keywords: role perceptions, metaphors, philosophies of education [HTML]
This study aims to determine whether or not teachers working with children with developmental disabilities use daily routines, transitions and, planned play activities that are among the basic elements of Activity-Based Intervention (ABI) into instruction. The study also investigates how the teachers implement instructional procedures in order to teach target skills and concepts to their students if they use these activities into instruction. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants, and data were analyzed via inductive analysis technique in the study. At the end of analyses, three main themes and sub-themes were identified. Findings of the study showed that teachers have limitations in using ABI strategies systematically in their classes. In spite of these limitations they deliver positive opinions regarding ABI applications. Offering ABI strategies as an alternative instruction to teachers working with students with developmental disabilities and improving their competence to conduct these strategies may contribute both to increase in successful practices and occur a positive atmosphere in the classroom settings.
Keywords: Developmental disabilities, early intervention, activity-based intervention, teacher opinions, and special education teachers [HTML]
The research was carried out in Kafkas University, Department of Turkish Education and Department of Elementary Science Education, with 366 students. Computer Anxiety Scale and Computer Self Efficacy and a set of demographic questions were used as data collection in this study. Datas were analyzed using t- test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results showed significant correlation between higher computer self efficacy and low computer anxiety. Significant gender effects were found throughout, with males tending to report greater computer self efficacy but gender effects weren’t to computer anxiety. However department factor effects on computer efficacy were found significant but weren’t on computer anxiety. Frequency of use of computer effects on computer anxiety (the more frequent users were less anxious) and computer efficacy (the more frequent users were high computer efficacy). Moreover it was found that students who owned a PC at home less anxiety related to computers.
Learning-through-exam method (LTEM) is the use of assessment techniques in the teaching-learning process as a learning tool. The study aimed to ascertain teacher candidates’ opinions regarding LTEM applied in Educational Technology and Material Development course. In the study, theoretical topics were taught according to this method during ten weeks. The results revealed that most of the teacher candidates agreed on the contribution of LTEM to learning and the preparation for exams and, in this regard, attitudes of female students were significantly higher than male students and compared to the students in the Department of Tourism Education, those in the other departments had more positive attitudes. Besides, a concern about whether this method stimulates memorization was detected and this finding did not differ according to gender and department.
In this study, investigating the effect of project based learning (PBL) model designing with the meaningful field trip was applied to the Solar Energy and Its Usage Areas (SEUAs) topic in Physics lesson, at high school level students’ achievement, attitude towards topic and ecology. At the study, quasi-experimental pattern with the pre-post test control group has been used, in addition students’ opinions of the meaningful field trip was applied content analysis.The sample of the research was determined 12th high school students which learned Gulkent Anatolian School in Isparta city at 2008-2009 educational term. The instruction of SEUAs was used 5E learning cycle model instruction design in field trip preparing at The Renewable Energy Research&Implemantation Center (RERIC) at Suleyman Demirel University.. The results of study, the experimental group of students’ achievements and attitudes towards ecology and SEUAs topic was positively increased according to control group.
Keywords: Physics education, project based learning, meaningful field trip, 5E learning cycle, solar energy. [HTML]
Researches showes that primary school students have insufficient understanding of the nature of science. Recent studies emphasise the importance of scientific argumentation. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of argumentation on the levels of understanding of nature of science of primary school students in science lessons. Quasi experimental design was applied in this research which was studied with eighth grade students in primary school. Nature of science survey and pre-knowledge test were used for data gathering in this research which has been planned for two years. Data were analyzed with SPSS 12,0. Meaningful differences were found between argumentation based learning class and traditional learning class with respect to understanding levels of the nature of science (first practice F1-48=8,032; p=0,007; second practice F1-34 =10,422; p=0,003). Scientific argumentation method is suggested as a usable method to teach the nature of science.
Keywords: Nature of science, scientific argumentation, science education [HTML]
The object of this paper is to find out answers to such questions as whether students who learn French as their third language (L-3) ever refer to English, which they learned earlier as the second language (L-2); whether they develop learning strategies for French and whether their learning motivation supports their motivation while learning their third language, French. In this context, a questionnaire was administrated to 100 students of Translation & Interpretation in French in Kırıkkale University, 71 females and 29 males, who all started this program with at least one foreign language. In the study, the students have been grouped according to the average of the correct answers they gave in the English test in YDS exam (Central Foreign Language Exam for Language Programmes in Turkey). The study shows that there is a constant decrease in the average of the correct answers year by year, as a significant difference between the performances of the 1st – 2nd year-students and 3rd- 4th year-students in this English test has been found. The study demonstrates that the 3rd and 4th year students, who performed better in YDS, have benefited more from their English, which they learned as a second language while learning French as the third language. However, the study shows that there has’nt been found a significant difference at the developing of learning strategies and at the motivation levels.
Keywords: language, foreign language learning, learning strategies, motivation [HTML]
This study is conducted to determine the relationship between the digital divide in ICT access, ICT use
and ICT literacy indicators with certain demographic characteristics of university students. Data are obtained by using
measurement tools developed by investigators. Study group includes 822 students of preparatory class and first class of a
university. Ki-square, t test and variation analysis are used in data analysis. Differences are found in the access, literacy and
usage indicators of digital divide of some demographic properties of students as a result of analysis. In access indicator of
digital divide there is no meaningful difference with respect to gender, however there is a difference in favour of motherfather's
education level. In ICT literacy indicator there is a difference in favour of male students, students having higher
education level mother-father. In the point of view of usage indicator; usage of ICT for entertainment purposes have a
favourable difference for male students, students having higher education level mother-father; usage of ICT for academic
purposes have a favourable difference for female students, students having higher education level mother.
Keywords: digital divide, information and communication technologies, university students [HTML]
This study aimed to analyze the effects of computer-assisted teaching (CAT) on the graphing skills (understanding, evaluating, and drawing) of student teachers of science and their attitudes towards using graphics. Experimental method was used in the study. The Scale of Attitudes towards Using Graphics and the Graphic Drawing, Understanding and Evaluating Test were used in the study together with worksheets. Six students from the treatment group were interviewed following the application. Forty students studying at Year 1 of Hacettepe University Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education participated in the study. The treatment group received teaching through computer-assisted teaching applications within the constructivist approach, while the control group was taught through the traditional method. In the computer-assisted teaching applications, a tool that was developed specifically for this application was used. It was observed that computer-assisted teaching was more effective on changing the attitudes of student teachers towards using graphics on the positive direction as well as improving their graphing skills.
The aim of the Erasmus Programme which has been implemented in many European countries since 1987 is to increase the level of tertiary education and empower the European dimension. The programme tries to achieve its goals by encouraging international cooperation between universities; by providing exchange of students and academics in Europe; by recognizing the studies and degrees held in the participating countries; and by improving transparency. Turkey has been a full participant in the EU Education and Youth Programmes since 2004. Apart from Turkey there are 30 participating European countries. The aim of this study is to identify the academic challenges of those students who came to Turkey via Erasmus Programme. The data were obtained from 106 visiting students who came to Turkey in 2007-2008. The data were collected with an academic challenges survey prepared by the researchers. Frequency and percentage distributions were obtained from the analysis of the data; t-test and Kruskal Wallis analysis were used to find out whether there were any differences in challenges among students according to their genders, universities, faculties, education levels and countries. The results of the study show that there are no significant differences in challenges faced by the students according to their genders, universities, faculties, education levels and countries.