The purpose of this research is to examine the views of teachers in Turkey and Kazakhstan on the social status of the teaching profession. The universe of the study was comprised of teachers in Ankara and Nur-Sultan, the capital cities of Turkey and Kazakhstan, respectively. In order to collect qualitative data, an interview form titled "Opinions on the Status of the Teaching Profession" was prepared in Turkish and those interview questions were translated into Kazakh. Teachers' views on the status of the teaching profession were determined on the basis of the phenomenology pattern. In this context, the interview groups consisted of 14 teachers working in Ankara and 14 teachers working in Nur-Sultan, 28 participants in total. The findings of the study revealed that some of the participants in Turkey believed the status of the teaching profession in the present is lower than in the past. Among the factors affecting social status, participants noted excessive workloads, incompetence of teachers, low salaries, extra workloads, economic dissatisfaction, and difficulties with teacher appointments and training. Teachers working in the province of Nur-Sultan stated that the status of the teaching profession in the country has improved following the approval of the ‘Teacher Status Law’ and the increasing of the base scores for applicants to teaching departments. A few participants, however, noted that the status is still low. The factors that affect teachers' social status were identified as excessive workload, incompetence, teacher salaries, economic dissatisfaction, and problems in professional development. Turkish and Kazakh participants' suggestions for elevating the status of their profession were presented at the end of the research.
Keywords: Status of teaching profession, status of teacher, teachers’ opinion on status
Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy (PESP) studies in Turkey have recently been increasing rapidly while the effects of these studies on the paradigm are not yet known clearly. PESP proceedings (2014-2018) were analyzed through qualitative content analysis in present study and findings was examined by Thomas Kuhn perspective. Findings and evaluations show that PESP studies in Turkey are usually centered around stereotyped tendencies that conducted on the “economy” aspect in terms of time, cost and energy and neglecting the quality and deep parameters of the research. The study was concluded that the paradigm examined within Thomas Kuhn’s perspective and suggesting ‘’Black Hole Effect in Science’’.
Keywords: Physical Education, Sport Pedagogy, Content Analysis, Paradigm, Thomas Kuhn
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of activities developed according to scientific argumentation on understandings of 8th-grade students’ photosynthesis and respiration concepts. A quasi-experimental design was applied as the pilot study was carried out in 2017-2018 and the main study was carried out in the 2018-2019 academic year with the number of 40 students. Educational Informatics Network (EIN) and teaching methods and techniques which were suggested in Science curriculum were applied in control group. For the treatment group, activities based on The Toulmin’s Model of Argument and Educational Informatics Network (EIN) were used. Worksheets which were prepared according to scientific argumentation were engaged in treatment group’s activities. Content validity of the developed activities was ensured by an expert in science teaching and two science teachers. Data was drawn from Photosynthesis and Respiration Concept Test (PRCT) which involved open-ended and two-phased questions. The measurement tool was conducted as a pre-test, post-test and delayed test in groups. Findings from the study showed that there was no significant difference between the achievement of treatment and control group however, treatment group had greater progress on learning human-food and human-energy relationships, the purpose of photosynthesis and respiration. It was also seen students in the treatment group were showed greater performance while explaining topics in detail and expressing cause and effect relationships of concepts.
Keywords: Scientific argumentation, Toulmin’s model of argument, conceptual understanding, photosynthesis and respiration.
The professional competencies of the teacher are of great importance in all educational levels, however in primary school, which is an important part of basic education, the importance of this situation is more prominent. In this sense; The aim of this study is to develop the general proficiency perception scale for teaching profession for elementary school teacher candidates. In this context, data collection tool was offered on a voluntary basis to 547 teacher candidates, face to face or online, and the necessary analyzes for the validity and reliability of the measurement tool with the collected data were made with the SPSS and LISREL programs. In the process of testing the validity of the measuring tool; In order to test the content validity, expert opinions were consulted, and necessary corrections were made. After the adjustments, the comprehensibility of the measuring tool was tested on a small group, and then a pilot application was made. After the obtained data were tested for their suitability for the analyzes, necessary analyzes were made with the obtained data. In the process of testing structural validity; As a result of the exploratory factor analysis, it was seen that the scale consisted of one dimension, and to what extent the theoretical structure was supported with the confirmatory factor analysis. Subsequently, by comparing the scores of the lower and upper quartile groups, internal criterion based validity was tested, with the Kruskal Wallis H-Test external criterion based validity was tested. In the process of testing reliability; Cronbach Alpha Coefficient was used, and item total correlations were examined. As a result of the study; It was seen that the “General Proficiency Perception Scale of Teacher Profession” was a valid and reliable measurement tool that can be used to measure the teacher candidates’ perceptions of general competence.
Keywords: primary school teaching, teacher candidate, competence perception, teaching as a profession, scale development.
In this study, it is aimed to investigate and compare the contents of out-of-school learning environments guidebooks have been prepared in 2018-2019 academic year for physics, chemistry and biology courses in terms of unit/subject, learning outcome and learning environment. The study was conducted with document analysis method. The physics, chemistry and biology course contents of out-of-school learning environments’ guidebooks (OSLEG) had been evolved for seven cities which were selected randomly from seven regions of Turkey analyzed according to units/subjects, learning outcome and environment. When the contents of physics, chemistry and biology courses in OSLEG are examined in detail; the relationship between unit/subject and learning outcome is mostly mentioned in the OSLEG prepared by Denizli, Trabzon, and Bursa follow this province respectively. As a result of the analysis made the contents of the physics, chemistry and biology courses included in the OSLEG considering the diversity of the relationship between the subject/learning outcome and environment; it is determined that Denizli takes care to offer as much variety of places as possible, it was followed by Trabzon and Bursa respectively. It can be concluded that in a significant part of OSLEG, there are not sufficient relations between unit/subject, learning outcome, and environment for physics, chemistry and biology courses.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of applications based on the flipped classroom model on the academic performance and planning skills of primary school fourth-grade students. The study sample consisted of 60 fourth grade students who attend a state primary school in Samsun. This study employed a mixed sequential explanatory design integrating quantitative and qualitative research methods. The study's quantitative dimension was designed as a semi-experimental design with a 3x2 pre-test and post-test control group. The study group consisted of 20 students in each group, experimental 1 received flipped classroom model-based science and social studies class, experimental 2 received in-class flipped classroom model-based science and social studies class, and the control group received the same classes specified by teacher and student books published in 2014 for four weeks. Research data was obtained with data tools developed within the research that Science and Social Studies courses learning outcome assessment tests, and the Tower of London Test. Mixed design repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare students' academic achievement and planning skill levels. Research results show that each application in a flipped classroom was more effective than a traditional course on Science and Social Studies academic performance. However, there was no significant difference between academic performance levels of students in groups trained by flipped and in-class flipped classrooms. Research results show no significant difference between the students' planning skill levels in groups. Research results obtained by qualitative data show that students in groups who received flipped classroom models had a positive opinion on the flipped classroom, animations, and QR code activities.
The importance of socioscientific issues is increasing day by day, accordingly, updates are made in the curriculum. Socioscientific issues are indirectly included in the 2005 science-technology teaching curriculum, while 2013 and 2018 are directly involved within the objectives of the science teaching curriculum. The aim of this study is firstly to develop socioscientific issues scenarios related to the environment and secondly to reveal students' experiences and opinions through the developed scenarios. The research method is case study, which is one of the qualitative research methods. The study group of this research consist of 10, 8th grade students studying at a public school. Semi-structured interview form has been used by the researchers as the data collection instrument. The questions related to six different socioscientific case scenarios created in the interview form are included. The data obtained has been analysed both by using the method of descriptive analysis and content analysis. According to the findings, it was determined that the students' views on socioscientific issues were at a medium level. Also it is determined that the students who have the social media observe the events occurring in their environment. As a result of this, they have higher ability about interpreting on socio-scientific issues, reasoning, deciding and critical thinking. Socioscientific case scenarios can be said to be effective not only to reveal students' views but also to encourage thinking about socioscientific issues and increase motivation and learning. Teachers are recommended to create learning environments through which socio-scientific scenarios in case students can express their ideas without hesitation.
Keywords: socioscientific issues, environmental education, socioscientific case scenarios, qualitative research, 8th grade middle school students
The study aimed to evaluate Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) of pre-service teachers within the framework of TPACK-Based Instructional Design Model during the emergency remote teaching process. The study, which was designed with an exploratory case approach, was carried out with senior pre-service teachers attending the Computer and Instructional Technologies Education (CEIT) department. The content of the courses within the scope of the study was developed and adjusted to include the stages of the TPACK-Based Instructional Design Model. The data consists of the lesson plans and course materials designed by the pre-service teachers, the videos and reports they prepared during the semester and their answers to the interview questions. The evaluation of lesson plans, materials and videos were carried out by using TPACK based learning environments assessment rubric. Content analysis was used to analyze the data obtained from the reports and the interviews. According to the findings of the study, the course, which was designed with the TPACK-based Instructional Design Model, increased the TPACK levels of pre-service teachers by associating their technological, pedagogical and content knowledge. It is observed that pre-service teachers focused on the characteristics of the target audience, the usability of the material, social presence, providing clear and unambiguous lectures, stimulating and gaining attention, and designing individual interactive materials in the use of TPACK. Instructional design of distance education courses is a significant topic to educate pre-service teachers during their training at the school of education. However, educating them about TPACK use and its applications in distance education would help distance education progress in a more planned manner.
This study aims at developing web-based content management systems enabling coordination with regards to the quality criteria of complex and differently formed teaching materials which can support pre-service teachers’ laboratory implementations in terms of higher education information economy system. The process to develop web-based content management system which will support the laboratory courses of pre-service teachers has been modelled considering the criteria of pedagogical quality, content quality and technological quality. Developing process built in the research designed with creative problem solution model consists of 6 phases which are defining the problem, creative idea, constructing solution, decision making-picking the best idea/solution, design-developing solution, implementation-assessment and redesigning-revision. The e-system skills constructed with regards to the requirements of a specific discipline are built in such a way that can be re-structured considering the needs of other disciplines in education faculties. In the end of the spirally structured development process built through problem solving model, web-based content management system was developed and implemented on pre-service teachers. Web-based content management system has been assessed through Content Management System Quality Rubric (CMSQR) and student interview form. Modelling process has been completed after the readjustments based on the students’ perception levels and reflections about the quality of the web-based content management system developed through a case study. This study, developing web-based content management system, is considered to contribute to the literature as it presents a comprehensive model aiming at putting up to the researches about developing an e-system where pre-service teaches can conduct their laboratory studies.
The purpose of this study was to capture peer research mentoring experience of pre-service school counselors who were involved in a Peer Research Mentoring Program (PRMP) deployed at an undergraduate level Research Methods course. We used a qualitative case study, and employed maximum variation sampling to recruit 10 pre-service school counselors who had completed the Research Methods course at an international university in Northern Cyprus as peer research mentors. We paired up the research mentors with pre-service school counselors who were enrolled in the course. Upon completion of a training module, peer research mentors guided their peers in developing an effective research proposal. We collected data through qualitative surveys from 10 peer research mentors and 9 mentees. Data were content analyzed using NVivo 11 Plus. The results indicated that peer research mentoring process enabled the research mentors to gain first-hand research mentoring experience; updated their knowledge and skills regarding conducting research; increased their research self-efficacy and research interests, and improved their communication skills.
Keywords: Peer research mentoring, peer mentoring experience, undergraduate level research methods course, case study.
Restrictors of teacher autonomy are frequently investigated in literature. Yet, the obligations of teacher training on this issue have not been sufficiently emphasized. In this study based on this deficiency, the adequacy of the central Turkish Language Education Undergraduate Program to develop teacher autonomy was examined. According to the findings obtained from this study, conducted according to the convergent parallel mixed-method, it was observed that the central Turkish Language Education Undergraduate Program was insufficient in terms of improving teacher autonomy. The research point to the importance and possibilities of developing teacher autonomy in new Turkish language education undergraduate programs.
Keywords: Teacher autonomy, Teacher autonomy competencies, central Turkish language teacher education undergraduate program
This paper aims at exploring the perceptions of math teachers towards distance education. The participants of the current phenomenological study are seven math teachers, selected through criterion and convenience sampling. The data on which the study is based come from interviews, consisting of ten open-ended questions. These questions are categorized under three parts: knowledge and awareness of distance education, teacher self-efficacy during distance education and, teacher opinions on the teaching activities in the course of distance education. The data of the research were obtained through semi-structured interview. The data are subjected to content analysis. In line with the findings, it has been determined that mathematics teachers do not have sufficient preliminary preparation for distance education, and that they generally acquire information about the distance mathematics education process informally. In addition, it was determined that teachers encountered different roles that should be assumed in the distance mathematics education process and they carried out the process by undertaking these roles.
Keywords: Distance education, Distance math education, Math teacher, Content analysis
Qualified and effective preschool education programs cover many dimensions. Family involvement and assessment dimensions are two of these dimensions. While the family participation dimension enables families to participate in education by taking responsibility in the education of their children, it also supports their development as effective parents. The dimensioning of the program includes the assesment of the children, program and the teacher herself. The literature includes studies involving the opinions of preschool teachers on different issues regarding the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) Preschool Education Curricula. However, there is no historical study examining teacher opinions on family involvement and assessment dimensions considering the MoNE 2002, 2006, and 2013 Preschool Education Curricula. Therefore, this study aimed at examining teachers’ opinions on the family involvement and assessment dimensions of the MoNE 2002, 2006, and 2013 Preschool Education Curricula. Interview method among qualitative research models was used in this study. The data were collected using “Teacher Personal Information Form” and “Teacher Interview Form”. The population of this study consisted of the 40 preschool teachers working in kindergartens and preschools in Ankara between 2003-2004 and 2015-2016 academic years. The sample of the study consists of 40 preschool teachers who worked in official kindergarten and kindergartens affiliated to MEB in eight district centers of Ankara province in the academic years of 2003-2004 and 2015-2016. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data obtained from the opinions of preschool teachers on the family involvement and assesment dimensions of the related curricula. Over the years, the preschool teachers participating in the study have adopted a positive opinion that families are more participatory and conscious about the family involvement dimension of the programs, and that more effective and alternative assessment methods are used in the assessment dimension.
Keywords: Preschool education curriculum, dimensions of curricula, parental involvement, family involvement, curriculum assessment.
The purpose of this study is to identify the perspectives of high school administrators and determine the opinions of schools and school administrators about the innovational competencies. The phenomenological design was used to reveal the opinions of the 8 school administrators about the innovation concept in depth. The focus group interview technique was also used to collect the data. Content analysis and descriptive analysis techniques were implemented to analyze the data properly. As a result, it was found that the school administrators had difficulty defining the innovation concept. It is also stated by administrators that there is not a suitable environment to improve innovative actions and legal regulations and lack of beliefs restrict them from it. At the end of the research, it can be recommended that the instructions to increase the knowledge and experiences of the school administrators about innovation concept and process should be carried out.
Keywords: Innovation, Innovation in education, Innovation in high schools, Innovation for school administration
The aim of the study is to examine what preschool teachers know about phonological awareness, what they do at the practice, their self-sufficiency status and their needs. 396 preschool teachers participated in survey research by taking into account the 12 Regional Classifications determined by TURKSTAT, with the appropriate sampling method. As the data collection tool, Identification of Preschool Teachers' Opinion on Phonological Awareness Education Survey consisting of open-ended and multiple-choice questions was prepared by researchers. As a result, it was found that most of the preschool teachers do not know the development, scope, processes and tasks of phonological awareness. They had problems on organizing learning environments and difficulties in the planning, implementation and evaluation processes of activities. They consider themselves mostly partly adequate and insufficient in these processes of activities. In addition, the educational needs of teachers and their expectations related to phonological awareness education were revealed
This research aimed to analyze the objectives of the Primary School Education Program in terms of gaining “individual differences and inclusive education”, “multiculturalism” and “democratic values” by examining the primary teacher candidates’ perceptions of competence related to differences is classroom and cultural intelligence. For this purpose, the study utilized descriptive and relational screening models. The data collected through a simultaneous mixed design model which combines the quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative data of the study obtained through the scales of “Teacher Efficacy Scale for Classe Diversity” and “Cultural Intelligence” while the qualitative data acquired through document analysis. The study revealed that primary teacher candidates see themselves competent in multicultural classroom environments. The perceptions of primary teacher candidates do not differ significantly according to the environment in which they are studying, and their foreign language proficiency. The results of the study also showed that there is a limited number of compulsory and elective courses and a limited number of objectives which aim to gain multiculturalism, democratic values, individual differences, and inclusive education in the primary teacher education program.
Keywords: Individual differences, multiculturalism, democratic values, inclusive education, cultural intelligence, perceptions of competence
The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes in three beginning teachers’ visions during their first year in the profession. A multiple case study was conducted for in-depth analysis of the changes in three beginning teachers' visions. Data were collected from three volunteer purposefully chosen beginning teachers through individual interviews, classroom observations and open-ended questionnaires during a schooling year. Each participant was initially specified as separate cases and content analysis was used to analyse the data from each case. Then a cross-case analysis was conducted to compare the changes in each participant’s teacher visions. The results indicate that several changes appear in participants’ overall teacher visions, professional understanding, conceptual and practical tools, practices and dispositions throughout their first year teaching experience.
Keywords: Teacher vision, teacher induction, beginning teacher, multiple case study
In this research, content analysis of graduate theses written in music education in Turkey was made. For this purpose, 339 postgraduate theses were examined. In the descriptive research, the data collected by the document analysis method were analyzed by making content analysis. The data obtained in the research were analyzed with descriptive statistics methods and presented with tables. Postgraduate theses in the field of music education, where the majority of the postgraduate theses examined in the research are master's theses, the first theses accessible in the field of music education and the HEC national theses center was written in 1986 and the most thesis was in 2019, the majority of theses were made in Gazi University and educational sciences institutes. The majority of theses are studied using quantitative or mixed research methods and scanning model, interview and survey method is used as the data collection method, quantitative data analysis methods are used as the data analysis method, The average of the number of participants in the experimental group was 23,48, and the average of the number of participants in the control group was 16,34, while the most used document analysis and questionnaires were used as the data collection tool, the model with the most pre-test - post-test - control group was used in the theses studied using the experimental design. It was concluded that the duration of application lasted 14 weeks on average, descriptive and meaningful statistics were used together, and the university students in the music field and children between the ages of 6-15 were selected as the study group.
Keywords: Content Analysis, Music, Music Education, Research, Postgraduate Theses.
In reading difficulties, it is very important to identify students who have reading difficulties. The main purpose of the research is to develop a practical, easy-to-apply and functional form that will be used for primary school teachers to identify students with reading difficulties in their classrooms. For this purpose, a form has been developed to identify students with reading difficulties. A case study pattern used to reveal an existing situation was used. In the research, criterion sampling method, which is one of the purposeful sampling methods, was used. 20 students and 10 classroom teachers participated in the research carried out in a primary school in the city center of Ankara in the spring term of the 2019-2020 academic year. In order to obtain the data of the research, 'Identification of Students with Reading Difficulty Form' and 'Inaccurate Analysis Inventory' were used. Frequency and percentage values were used in the analysis of the data. In the research, a 4-dimensional and 20-item form was developed to identify students with reading difficulties. It was found that the 'Determination of Students with Reading Difficulties Form' developed in the research determined the students who had reading difficulties more easily and practically. According to the results obtained in the research, it was concluded that the form developed to identify students with reading difficulties is a functional and functional form.
Keywords: Reading Difficulty, Detection Form, Teacher, Student with Reading Difficulty
In this study, it was aimed to investigate the peer bullying seen in preschool period on the basis of emotional intelligence and family variables. A total of 286 children aged between 5 and 6 participated in the study. “Storified Hypothetical Situations Form”, “Sullivan Emotional Intelligence Scale for Children”, “Sullivan Brief Empathy Scale for Children”, “Sullivan Teacher Rating Scale of Emotional Intelligence in Children”, “Parents Attitude Scale” and Demographical Information Form have been used as data collection tools. The findings indicate that variables such as emotional intelligence, gender, maternal education level, socio-economic level, father's profession, child's level of interest in violent games and television programs, and democratic and authoritarian parent attitudes were directly related to peer bullying. In addition, the results showed that peer bullying seen in preschool period can be a worth-stressing problem The findings were discussed in the context of the related literature.
In this study, the level of understanding place value of the fourth-grade students in the primary school was investigated in terms of counting, representing, comparing, naming, renaming and calculating. A mixed model was used in the research. The study group consisted of 117 students in the fourth-grade in the Haymana district of Ankara. The "Place Concept in Natural Numbers Test" developed for research as a data collection tool was used. The KR-20, reliability of the test was 91,6. According to the findings of the study; it is determined that students counting dimensions countback sub-dimension, naming dimensions read and write sub-dimension, rename sub dimensions in renaming a given expression in a conventional manner, sorting from small to large dimension, in compiling and multiplication dimension' sub-dimensions, reach the 0.75 and higher level of learning. As a result of the content analysis for each dimension of the place value; students made more mistakes unconventional rename dimensions, calculating dimension division, comparing finding the number between two numbers. According to the results of the tethrachoric correlation, it was concluded that the prerequisite relations were strong between the behaviors related to all dimensions discussed in the study.
Keywords: elementary mathematics, place value, place-value mistakes.
In this study, it was aimed to examine the effect of realistic mathematics education approach on students' academic achievement and attitudes towards mathematics. In the research, 67 studies on academic achievement and 27 studies on attitude were examined. As a result of the examination, the data of 37 studies for academic achievement and 15 studies for attitude, which comply with the inclusion criteria, were combined with the meta-analysis method. While combining the studies, random effects model was used because the structure is heterogeneous. As a result of the research, the overall effect size value was found to be 1.107 for academic success and 0.694 for attitude towards mathematics. As a result, it has been determined that realistic mathematics education approach has a very wide-ranging effect on increasing academic achievement and a medium-level effect on increasing attitude towards mathematics.
This study evaluated improvement in the personal and social responsibility model on the sense of responsibility and behavior of middle school students participating in a program in which Hellison’s Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model was applied in extracurricular physical activities. Sixty-four at adolescents aged 13-14 years old (34 boys, 30 girls) were assigned to an intervention group (18 boys and 16 girls) and a comparison group (16 boys, 14 girls), the latter of which did not participate extracurricular in the program. The result of study showed an improvement in responsibility behaviors of participants in the intervention group. This suggests that the TPSRM could be effective for improving of responsibility for sense of responsibility, but it could not impact on students in the responsibility behaviors during the ten weeks.
Keywords: Teaching personal and social responsibility model, extracurricular activities, physical education, personal and social responsibility
This study aims to elaborate on the history of mentoring in pre-service teacher education in Turkey since the foundation of the republic (1923). Existing literature does not provide information about the availability of an implemented pre-service teacher education between 1923 to 1998. However, a non-structured, undesignated formation in pre-service teacher training was initiated unofficially in the Village Institutes (1940-1954) and the formation reached a better structure in the following decades. The literature on pre-service teacher mentorship in Turkey emerged in the post-1980s. This study examines pre-service teacher mentorship chronologically. Firstly, an incipient pre-service teacher mentoring was inferred within the Village Institutes (1940-1954), albeit a non-structured, undesignated system. Next, a structured practicum mentorship was initiated in pre-service teacher education due to post-1998 reforms. Upon such progress, the Clinical Supervision Model piloting and e-mentorship implementations have been examined in pre-service teacher education studies which have been reviewed within a descriptive approach. Finally, the study concludes that the Clinical Supervision Model has been perceived significantly effective by the parties involved in pre-service teacher mentoring implementations. This finding may contribute to pre-service teacher education programs.
The purpose of this meta-analysis is to analyze the studies used response interruption and redirection in the reduction of stereotypes of children and youths with autism spectrum disorder, to identify the effect size of response interruption and redirection, and to determine whether response interruption and redirection is an evidence-based practice. 4452 studies were screened based on the titles and abstracts. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to 50 studies, and 26 studies were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Eight studies out of 24 studies met the standard with and without reservation. The quality assessment was conducted for eight studies. Based on the quality assessment, seven out of eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The percentage of overlapping data score was 89%, the Tau-U score was 90%, and the improvement rate difference score was 89% for response interruption and redirection. Effect size calculation indicated that response interruption and redirection was effective in reducing verbal and motor stereotypes of children and youths with autism spectrum disorder, and the effect size is medium and high. The findings also revealed that response interruption and redirection is an evidence-based practice in reducing verbal and motor stereotypes of children and youths with autism spectrum disorder.
Keywords: Response interruption and redirection, Stereotypical behaviors, Autism spectrum disorder, Meta-analysis, Single-case-experimental research