In this research, the learning achivement was
studied in basic learning skills in the basic schools in Turkey in
terms of educational objectives of educational programme for
basic schools and the framework of the world decleration. (Education
for all conference held in Jomtien, Tailand). In the study,
basic learning skills in Turkish, mathematics, social science and
naturel seciences were included in the study. Attitudes towards
science and technology, health and citizenship were also studied.
Keywords: measuring basic learning skills, education for all, basic learning skills, needs for basic skills. [HTML]
The aim of this paper is to explain competencies
and skills which should be developed by preschool curriculum.
These competencies and skills relate to self-awareness, social
skills- cultural awareness, coımnunication skills which
include language, musıc, movement, drama, art, perceptualmotor
skills, analytical thinking, problem-solving skills, creative
and aesthetic awareness.
The purpose of this research is to determine
the relation between forth grade students academic self concept,
their learning styles in the classroom, study styles out of the classroom
and achievement in the social studies. The result of this
studyare summarized as follows: The relation between academic
self concept and achievement was found high in the high socioeconomic
level school, the relation between learning styles in the
class and achievement was found low. In addition the relation
between study styles out of the classroom and achievement was
found high. The students who attanded school in the high socioeconomic
level was found more succesfull than the students who
attended school in the low socio-economic level.
Keywords: Learning strategies elementary schooL. Teaching of the social studies in the elementary schooL. [HTML]
The study is developed on the assumption
that is Individuals develop different degree of expectancy of succe
ss or failure on particular intellectual tasks: At a stronger level
of expectancy of success on failure has a determining role in guiding
preferences and motives.
The aim of this study is mainly to find out the relattions between
degree of students' achievement expectancy and the level
of achievement on the final examination of Educational Psychology
course (EBB 321), at the second grade of English Teacher
Three variables are included to the study. These are (1) academic
achievement of students on the final exam, (2) Students'
expectancy for the achievement, (3) factors perceived by students,
effect student academic achievement.
Findings point out that there is a low positive correlation between
studenls' expectancy and the academic grades students received
on the final exaınination (r= .441, r2=.1625). The number
of students who perceive their involvement in classroom
discussion and their studying strategy as achievement factors,
take place on the higher grade, not only on the expectancy but
also on the achievement score.
Keywords: Achievement expectancy, academic achieyement, locus of control. [HTML]
According to the UNESCO estimates, after
the World War II, a rapid quantitative expansion occured in all
educational systems and the total world enrolments (between
1960 and 1980) roughly doubled. The bulk of this great expansion
was achieved by the developing countries. On the other hand,
in the same period, total public education expenditures increased
about ten-fold. But only 12 per cent of these expenditures was
used by the developing countries. The explosion in educational
demand combined with financial crisis directed the developing
countries to new pursuits of cost-saving strategies. Some of the
cost-saving strategies seen in the developing countries as fo1-
lows; reducing the years of schooling, starting the school at later
ages, increasing class sizes, multi-shift schooling, reducing teacher
and capital costs, preventing repetitions and drop-outs ete.
Supervision has a great share in fulfilling or~
ganizational objectives. Supervision is a cylcing process consisting
of the activities of identification of the degree of the fulfilmint
of organisational objectives, evaluation, correction and
development. Educational supervision is a means of realising
educational objectives and preparing a medium for efficient education.
In Turkey, educational supervision is performed by the supervisors
directly belonging to Ministry of Education and the
primary education supervisors belonging to governorship in the
The objectives of educational supervision in terıns of supervision
elemants are identification, evaluation, correction and development
of a) the fulfilment of educational objectives, b) educational
medium, c) appropriateness of the methods and the
techniques. d) means of measurement and evaluation, e) endeavour
of teachers, f) co-operation and co-ordination of schoolenvironment,
teacher-student-administrator, g) the problems of
supervision itself. Fulfilling the objectives of educational supervision
depends on certain principles such as having an objective,
plan, deamess, integrity, continuity, being democratic, awareness
of individual differences and depending on hUlnan
The purpose of this study is to find out the similarities
of both item parameters and ability parameters estimated
by the Rasch model of latent traits theory and the clasical test
theory. The data used in this studyare the responses to Turkish
and mathematic tests given by the fifth grade primary school students.
There found a high level of correlations between the unit
normal values of item difficulty indexes and the bg parameter estimated
by the Rasch modeL. In addition to this, there also appeared
a high level of correlations among the ability levels estimated
by the Rasch modeL, the unit normal values of item difficulty indexes
that were used instead of the parameters in Rasch model
and classical test theory. The correlations were higer in higher
In this study, the estimation of ability was
worked on. Rasch modeling, which belongs to latent trait theory
alternatived to classical theory, ıtem parameters and Function of
Maximum Likelihood Estimation were used.
I prepared and used the programme which is estimated the
ability. This programme was written in Basic Programme Languages.
The resul! of this study were agreed with those of before
study in literature.
Keywords: Estimation of ability, Rasch Modeling, Maximum Likelihood Estimtion. [HTML]
Wenn man die LehrpHine des Biologieunterrichtes
und des Faches Umwelt und Mensch betrachtet, stellt
man mit einigen Ausnahmen nur sehr allgemeine Sachkenntnisse
im kognitiven Bereich fest, der eine enzyklopadische Wissenvermittlung
über Leben, Lebewesen und Natur mit ihren
vielfaltigen Erscheinungsformen erstrebt.
Hier wird hauptsachlich durch die biologischen Sachkenntnisse
die Lösung menschlicher und umweltbezogener Probleme
angestrebt. Der Biologie-Stundenplan ermöglicht in verschiedenen
Schulzweigen aber dies leider nicht. Deswegen muB die
wöchentliche Stundenzahl des Biologieunterrichtes in allen
Schularten erhöht werden.
The quality of education that the society has
in a country is nowadays being considered as the major indicator
for its level of development. For this reason, know ledge and education
have been considered as the most effective tool for social
development, progress and respect. In this respect, educational
expenditures have been accepted as the most valuable investment
made in human beings and human resources.
On the other hand, universities are leading institutions for the
social development and progress and cultural communication
centers which play an effective role in cultural, economic, political
and technical parts of life.
In this world of competition, universities have determined
their new targets and tendencies.
In the technological society of the 2000's, key notions which
can define higher education systems and form their targets are:
mass education, continuous education, elite education, interdisciplinary
flexible education, globalisation, accreditation, advanced
education technologies and planned basic researches.
Here is a summary of the basic problem s of our higher education
and our proposals to solve them:
Like the problem s of other educationallevels, the problems
of higher education in our country have not been examined carefully
and there is no public opinion on them yet.
The determined objectives ofhigher education have not been
identified clearly yet and there has not been enough work to realize
the determined objectives.
There have not been considerable qualitative and quantitive
developments at secondary education and guidance is not
There has never been a realistic balance of manpower, education
Higher education sounds quite monotonous.
Teaching has not been considered as an attractive job.
Quality of education at higher education has not been studied
Scientific researches have not been supported sufficiently
and there has not been enough cooperation for applied researches
between universities and industrial cooperations.
Keywords: Newlendencies in higher education and the Turkish case. [HTML]
In this artiele, the effects of immigration on
human health has been dealt with. The problem s that the Turks
who have beel' experiencing in Germany for along time are
being analyzed in details. It is chaimed, in this artiele, that cultural
problems, lack of cummunication, unemployment as a result
of immigration effect the human psychology and body health all
the claims are being bestowed on scientific theorics.
In view of the fact that foreign language
could not be taught effectively in secondary education to reach
the objectives, the new schools which have privileges have been
opened under the name of "Anadolu Lisesi" whose educational
languages were English, German, and French, instead of the
improvement of the system or replacement of it with a better one.
Upon the great demand for them, the total numbers of these schools
were increased abruptly irrespect of the requirements which
the teaching staff should have; and even tutional private schools
of this kind were opened.
In recent years, following the way accepted in the secondary
education, the higher education has maintained teaching in the
foreign language. On the one hand, while the public universities
ignore the significance of the foreign language taught; on the
other hand, the education in the foreign language was realized in
certain faculties of some universities and in all the faculties of
In secondary education, teaching mathematics, physics, biology,
and chemistry in the foreign language can also contribute
to students' knowledge of that foreign language. However, it is
clear that it causes deficiency in leaming those scientific courses
as well as creating difficulties for the students.
The same is also valid for the universities whose educational
language is a foreign language.
Considering the relationship between language and thought
in addition to the fact that students waste time in preparatory
classes and that it is hard to learn the higher-Ievelled knowledge
in the foreign language, we can daim that teaching in the foreign
language is an obstruction for the improvement of scientific thinking.
Furthermore, the employment fields where the required
knowledge acquired in the foreign language will be used are rather
I believe that, starting from the secondary schools till the end
of the universities so as to try to teach a foreign language satisfactorily,
it will be better to teach a second compulsory foreign
language which can be selected by the students from high schools
on, instead of underrating teaching of a foreign language in
most of the schools of both secondary and higher education.
Keywords: Foreign Language Teaching; Foreign Language medium of instruction; FL T and Mother Tongue [HTML]
Glassware and apparatus constructed for microscale
chemistry such as "Minilabor" can be used for various
standard laboratory operations and analytical work. In microscale
laboratory work less chemicals are needed, energy co nsumption
is reduced, reaction times are shortened, laboratory
work is more simple and can easily be rationalized, and waste
production is drastically reduced.
Attitudes, for certain objects, situations, associations,
content or for other people are learned tendencies. These
attitudes mig ht be accepted or opposed. Researches done in this
field have indicated that the attitudes of a person towards the material
to be learned, teacher and subject area has affected school
achievemenL Because of this, the main purpose of this study is to
find out the attitudes of the students towards their departments,
cources, teachers and friends.
This study is a descriptive research. The sample of the study
included 246 students studying at the Department of Educational
Sciences, Hacettepe University. An attitude scale that consists
four subscales utilized in the study.
Findings have shown that there was no statistically significant
difference between first and fourth grades of bQth (EPÖ)!
and (EÖDP students related to four of subsubscales. However,
there was statistically significant differences between first and fourth
year of (EPH)3 students for all of the sub-scales. There also
found a statistically significant difference between first and fourth
grade (EYTPE)4 students related to sub-scale of "attitudes
towards the cources".
Keywords: Attitude, Mesurement of attitudes [HTML]
This paper is a brief summary of a study carried
out in ten provinces of Turkey for fulfilment of the requirements
for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University
of Leicester, England. As the title tries to stress, this artiele
concerns primary school supervisors' practical involvement in
certain specific innovative behaviours and practices. The entire
thesis was submitted in May 1993.
The aim of the study was to attempt to focus on tl1e relationship
between educational innovation and primary school supervision
in Turkey. The main focus is on the innovative behaviours
exhibited by the primary school supervisors. Thus, the experiences
of primary school teachers and primary school supervisors
about these behaviours are identified.
The findings of the study revealed that the vast majority of
the pre-defined would-be innovative behaviours of supervisors
had not been adequately exhibited both in quantity and quality.
according to the responses of the vast majority of the teachers.
However, a substantial proportion of the supervisors reported
that tl1ey had exhibited those behaviours. The findings also suggested
that tl1e "quality control" or "assessment" aspect of the
primary school supervisian in Turkey was given more weight
than tl1e "support" and "advice" aspects of il. However, the results
also highlighted that there was a need for shifting of the
focus away from monitoring and inspection to support and advice
in supervisory activities.