PETALL (Pan-European Task-based Activities for Language Learning) is a European-funded project aiming at the promotion of foreign languages learning through ICT-based tasks. For that purpose, the project consortium has offered teacher training courses and has produced samples of best practices in which technologies play a major role. These tasks have been trialled and evaluated in the neighbouring countries in a network of collaborative partnerships in teaching and research, which allowed the designers of the tasks to receive constructive feedback from peers and end-users (teachers and learners). This article first provides an overview of the project (namely its rationale, literature review, implementation and evaluation processes, and the dissemination and exploitation strategies), before explaining in greater detail the procedures employed by the consortium in the setting-up of a methodological framework to be used in the designing and trialling of ICT-based tasks. The different stages of the designing process are described, as well as the criteria for the validation of the proposed samples. The template used by the designers is explained and an analysis of the set of tasks is also provided. In the end, some closing remarks based on the outcomes of the project are given.
Keywords: Task-based Language Teaching; ICT; Common European Framework; European projects; Teacher Training.
This study is performed in order to reveal Elementary Mathematics Teachers’ views related to Mental Games course that its implementation is fairly new. The study group consists of 25 Elementary Mathematics Teachers. In this study, case study design, one of the qualitative research methods, has been applied. Data has been collected by applying a questionnaire developed by researchers and consisted of open-ended questions. The questions examine the contribution of Mental Games course to the mathematics education and mathematical skills, evaluation of Mental Games Course Curriculum and the deficiencies of curriculum. According to the findings obtained, teachers have criticized that “Mental” word in Mental Games Course might create negative thoughts and anxiety in students. The majority of teachers shared their views that Mental Games course would make positive contributions on mathematics education in general, and on mathematical skills and the affective characteristics related to mathematics in particular. While teachers have shared their views about Mental Games course curriculum, they have highlighted the difficulty of implementing the program in a classroom where students have been from different grade levels also, teachers have mentioned some difficulties such as lack of material encountered in the classroom in terms of teaching the course, the lack of class equipments, the time problems, and crowded and heterogeneous groups.
Keywords: Mental games, mental games course, mental games course curriculum
The aim of this study is to determine 6th, 7th and 8th grade students’ indicators of knowledge of light concept through peer tutoring and examining peer tutoring applications. Multiple case study method was used in the research. As tutors, five students were chosen from 6th, 7th and 8th grades were participated in the study. As tutees, five students from 5th grade were selected. While peer tutoring was held, all sessions were videotaped. Videotapes were transcript and analyzed with Nvivo 9 software. Doing descriptive analysis, at first open coding was made and then categories were formed from these codes. The categories generated from codes were students’ indicators of knowledge of light concepts, materials used in the process and learning channels. It has been seen that mainly tutors relate light with sight; reflection is idiosyncratic for shiny things and law of reflection is applicable only in diffuse reflection. It has revealed daily life experiences and textbooks were quite effective for tutors to construct concepts. In that case, it was suggested classroom activities and textbooks should be arranged for students to understand and form concepts aright.
The purpose of the study is to compare item-person parameters that are estimated based on unidimensional and multidimensional Item Response Theory (IRT) of dichotomously scored multidimensional constructs, under the following conditions: different sampling sizes, inter-dimensional correlation and the number of dimensions. The study which is carried out with simulative data is an example of basic research. The standard errors of the item-person parameters estimated on the basis of the both models are evaluated with root mean square error. According to the research findings, the two-dimensional data constructs and the errors in the item parameter values obtained from unidimensional and multidimensional Item Response Theory, where the inter-dimensional correlation value is found high, do not significantly vary. Additionally, the number of errors in the item parameter values obtained from unidimensional IRT, in which there is three-dimensional and five-dimensional data construct increases. The standard errors of the item parameters have lower values as the sampling size increases. When the standard errors obtained from the person parameter estimations are considered, it is seen that multidimensional IRT under any conditions estimates with lower errors. As a result of the study, it is concluded that multidimensional IRT is found to give better results in the analysis of multidimensional constructs and to give more accurate results than unidimensional IRT, particularly in person parameter estimations and decision making. It could be advisable to employ multidimensional models since large scale assessments on national and international scales have various sub-dimensions for personal skills estimation.
In this study, the aim is to perform situation determination related with theses prepared in violin pedagogy field and to examine the findings placed under microscope from various aspects, in context of violin education system and problems. In line with this aim, similarities and differences between units, based on their preferences related with the research, were handled and the integrity of violin education in Turkey was questioned. Besides, the problems detected about violin education in other researches were related with the findings obtained in this research and accordingly were reviewed within the frame of the source or the reflections of the problems. 109 violin related theses were reached between January 2008 and December 2014 in higher education council national thesis archive and 69 among them were evaluated in terms of the determined criteria. Although studies with similar research tendencies under determined categories were found in theses prepared in music teachership, conservatories and fine arts faculties, it was determined that units conduct researches mostly related with their own units. As a result of relation of study findings with problems mentioned in other researches, problems are observed in integral structuring of violin education system of Turkey.
Some approaches in psychology (e.g. Psychoanalysis) define aggression as an inborn behavior, while some others (e.g. Behaviorism) define it as an acquired behavior. However, today it is a more widely admitted idea that this behavior is a product of heredity-environment interactions and has relation with different psycho-social variables. In previous studies, it is observed that aggression was tried to be explained by more basic research models. In this study, it is preferred to form a complex model to explain the aggression selected as dependent variable. The main objective of the study in this context is to research the relations between aggression and variables of perfectionism, forgiveness and coping with stress. The study group is consist of 2744 university students studying seven different cities. The data of the study is analyzed with the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results obtained from the study show that the aggression is explained significantly by the variables of perfectionism (β=.13; p<.001), forgiveness (β=-.40; p<.001) and negative and passive coping (β=.17; p<.001). Some of the results show similarities with previous findings while some others have differences. In consideration of the results, some suggestions were brought forward for the implementation process and for the further researches.
In the current study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship of organizational cynicism and burnout of the academicians’ working in state universities. A total of 392 academicians working in different faculties of four state universities located in Ankara were participated in the study. The data collection tools were “Organizational Cynicism Scale” developed by Brandes, Dharwadkar, and Dean (1999), and “Maslach Burnout Inventory” developed by Maslach and Jackson (1981). The data was analyzed by conducting t test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression. The construct validity of the scales used within the study was tested by confirmatory factor analysis, and as for the internal reliability, Cronbach alpha values were calculated. While the Cronbach alpha value of the Organizational Cynicism Scale was calculated as .93, the Cronbach alpha value of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment sub-dimensions of Maslach Burnout Inventory were calculated sequentially as .88, .74 and .73. In the study, it was found that academicians have moderate levels of organizational cynicism, and low levels of burnout. The study also showed that there is a moderate, positive and statistically significant relationship between academicians’ organizational cynicism attitudes and emotional exhaustion and depersonalization sub-dimensions of burnout, and there is no statistically significant relationship between academicians’ organizational cynicism attitudes and personal accomplishment sub-dimension of burnout. In addition, it was concluded that organizational cynicism is a significant predictor of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization sub-dimensions of burnout.
Keywords: organizational cynicism, burnout, academician, university, multiple linear regression
The aim of this study is to investigate the situation of pre-service science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) about the nature of science (NOS). Study is being carried out by using “Holistic Multiple Case Design” of qualitative research methodology. Population of research is chosen from 89 pre-service science teachers by the maximum variety sampling method that was executed with 5 pre-service teachers. Pre-service teachers’ PCK about NOS was identified with “Views about the Nature of Science (VANS) Questionnaire”, “VNOS-C Questionnaire” and also the triangulation method. HyperRESEARCHTM 2.8.3.Analysis Program was used in the content analysis. As a result of analysis, it is found that the pre-service teachers’ knowledge of nature of observations, hypotheses, theories and laws in the naive level; the knowledge of definition of the scientific, the knowledge of characteristics of the scientists, the information of the nature of the classification scheme in the realistic level. But it has been identified that there is no relationship between the pre-service teachers’ subject matter knowledge about NOS and components of PCK about NOS. Also, in general the interviews about pedagogical knowledge and the classroom practices of the pre-service teachers differ from each other. Furthermore, it is determined that inadequency about teaching the NOS caused especially by the weakness of their self-efficacy beliefs.
Keywords: Nature of Science, Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Pre-service Science Teachers
It is a meta-analysis study, searching the effectiveness of portfolio use in teaching. The sample, selected through an exhaustive search, consisted of 24 studies, including the studies conducted in overseas. The data complied through a coding form and statistical findings converted into the effect sizes. The codings were carried out by two researchers; the consistency was near perfect, as calculated by a Kappa statistics of .90. The analyses were classified into two headings as overall analysis (24 studies) and cumulative analysis (46 comparison groups). Considering the technological developments in time that was relevant in the current study, Random Effects Model was applied in the current analysis; effect sizes for general and cumulative data were calculated, heterogeneity was tested through Q statistics, and I² was calculated to determine the degree of heterogeneity. MetaWin 2.1 and SPSS 17.0 were used for analyses. Publication year, subject area, publication type, application type, education level and subject area were the moderator variables. The results were evaluated both in general and cumulatively and indicated heterogeneity for general analysis and homogeneity for cumulative analysis. However, none of the moderators explained heterogeneity in general analysis. According to the results, portfolio use has a large, positive impact on academic success. In addition, Rosenthal Approach indicated the validity of the results. Findings indicated that to declare the findings null there was a need for an additional 3524 and 5725 studies with reverse findings for general and cumulative analysis, respectively.
This study examines the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational job embeddedness and the mediating roles of psychological ownership and self-concordance on that relationship in higher education. The study sample encompasses 1193 faculty members along with their deans from randomly selected 13 universities in İstanbul, Ankara, İzmir, Kayseri, Antalya, Bursa, Samsun and Gaziantep during 2013-2014 spring semester. Faculty member’s perceptions of psychological ownership, self-concordance and organizational job embeddedness were measured using the Psychological Ownership Scale developed by Van Dyne and Pierce (2004), Perceived Locus of Causality Scale developed by Sheldon and Elliot (1999) and Organization Embeddedness Scale developed by Mitchell, Holtom, Lee, Sablynski, and Erez (2001) respectively. Avolio, Gardner, and Walumbwa’s (2007) Authentic Leadership Questionnaire was used to assess faculty dean’s authentic leadership behaviors. The results revealed a significant and positive relationship between authentic leadership and organizational job embeddedness and mediating roles of psychological ownership and self-concordance on that relationship.
This research aims to improve students’ modeling abilities via provide them opportunity of constructing, testing, using and revising their own models, and develop their views about nature of science. For this purpose, Concurrent – Triangulation Design (Creswell, 2009) was used as mixed method. Study was done with 114 seventh grade students and three science teachers from three different public schools. To enhance students modeling abilities, Modeling Based Science Education Program was designed based on Electricity in Our Life unit form Science Education Curriculum (MEB, 2005). The Modeling Based Science Education Program consist of constructing mental, expressed and consensus models (Gilbert, 2005) in context of electrostatics and electric current topics. In this research qualitative and quantitative data were obtained concurrently. As quantitative data, Views of Nature of Science Test (BİLTEST) was used as pre and posttests. As quantitative data, participant observations, document reviews and interviews were used. According to quantitative analyses, there is meaningful difference between pre and post test scores of views of nature of science test of experimental and control groups (F1,111 = 9,747, p = ,002 , π2 = 0,483). Additionally, qualitative data obtained from students and teachers shows that, Modeling Based Science Education Program enables to meaningful permanent learning, student engagement and enhance students’ views of nature of science. This results shows that, modeling based science education program can be an effective method to develop students’ views of nature of science.
In information and technology era, it is expected from individuals to obtain the information they need as self-directed through right way. Because it is thought as well development of learning dimensions by diversifying and that the information sources differ from each other facilitate individuals obtain information, it makes reaching the right information difficult. In this sense, It is thought it is necessary individuals obtain self-directed skills and acquire some cognitive and affective characteristics that are some requirements of these skills. Especially, development of self-directed learning skills of teacher candidates in education process is considered significant in terms of that directing their own learning process better and teaching these skills to the students.
Self-directed learning, in the most general sense, is described as that individual directs his own learning process. Self-directed learning is described by Knowles (1975) as the process of attempting to learn, specification self-learning needs with help or without help, to construct your learning objectives, to specify source (person, book) for learning, to choose true learning strategy regarding the information you will learn and being able to perform it and to be able to evaluate learning results. Tough (1979) (Akt; Merriam and Caffarella, 1999) says the most important phases are “planning and deciding” in the process of self-directed learning. Besides, he describes it as the process, which has “special steps”, that burdens learning responsibility to the learner and he states this side.
There are some important and necessary structures for self-directed learning and readiness of individual. One of these specialties is metacognitive thinking. Long (2000) utters that strengthening metacognitive awareness and strategies in individuals will contribute individuals to be self-directed learners. According to Van Merriënboer & Sluijsmans (2009), the use of metacognitive strategies as planning, observing and evaluating are necessary skills in self-directed learning process. When considering the characteristics of metacognitive thinking, it is seen as an important structure for self-directed learning readiness.
It is hoped that teachers will be active in the process of providing students’ readiness for self-directed learning and development of their metacognitive awareness. The university education process is important for development of teacher candidates’ self-directed learning and metacognitive awareness. In this education process, it is necessary that teachers should primarily have acquired self-directed learning skills to provide their students’ readiness for self-directed learning (Kriewaldt, 2001; Şahin and Erden, 2008). In this regard, this research was made to examine the relation between teacher candidates’ metacognitive awareness level and self-directed learning level and to test predictive power of metacognitive awareness level on self-directed learning readiness level.
In this research relational screening model was used because of that the relation between teacher candidates’ metacognitive awareness level and self-directed learning readiness level and their predictive power will be examined. The study group consists of third and fourth year students in various departments of Education Faculty of Dicle University, Gaziosmanpaşa University and Hacettepe University. 318 people participated in research. 216 of them were females and 102 were males. Data were collected from participants with “Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale” and “Metacognitive Awareness Inventory”. The sub-dimensions of self-directed learning readiness scale are self-management, desire for learning and self-control. The sub-dimensions of metacognitive awareness are cognitive information and cognitive regulation. In data analysis, multi regression analysis was made for each sub-dimension to analyze predictive power of independent variables (cognitive information and cognitive regulation) and dependent variables (self-management, desire for learning and self-control).
Firstly between two independent variable “cognitive information and cognitive regulation” and dependent “self-management” a correlation at level of 0,61 was found and it explains %37 of the variance of self-management. Both together were found as a significant (F2-315=93,26; p<.05) predictor of self-management. Secondly between “cognitive information and cognitive regulation” and “desire for learning” a correlation at level of 0,66 was found and it explains %43 of the variance of desire for learning. Both together were found as a significant (F2-315=119,24; p<.05) predictor of desire for learning. Lastly between “cognitive information and cognitive regulation” and “self-control” a correlation at level of 0,62 was found and it explains %39 of the variance of self-control. Both together were found as a significant (F2-315=100,35; p<.05) predictor of self-control.
According to the research findings, a positive and higher-up level relation was found between cognitive information, cognitive regulation and self-management, desire for learning, self-control. Besides, it was attained to the finding that the variables of cognitive information and cognitive regulation predict self-management, desire for learning and self-control variables significantly. The studies in related body of literature Long (2000), Hanor and Hayden (2004), Shannon and College (2008), Havenga and etc. (2013), Kincanon, Gleber and Kim (1999) support these research findings. Through related body of literature and findings, it is observed that one of necessary structures for self-directed learning of teacher candidates is metacognitive awareness. It can consequently be said that teacher candidates’, whose metacognitive awareness increases, self-directed learning readiness also increases. So teacher candidates should be graduated as that they have metacognitive awareness and were provided in self-directed learning readiness. Thereupon it is foreseen that this situation will contribute to increase the metacognitive awareness of students and their self-directed learning readiness when teacher candidates start their job.
In the context of the research findings, support and learning opportunities that facilitate learning out of school can be built to increase level of self-management of teacher candidates. The university teachers, who give class to teacher candidates, can give their lectures in a way that their lectures will increase candidates’ metacognitive awareness and provide their self-directed learning readiness. In addition, to teacher candidates may acquire the requirements of self-directed learning, in teacher training programs, “Self-Directed Learning” can be an independent lesson or it can be a part of the content of a lesson. Qualitative researches on the factors that increase teacher candidates’ self-management level, self-control and desire for learning can be made. The other cognitive and affective structures related self-directed learning and explain its variance can be searched. Longitudinal researches about the effect level of teacher training programs on self-directed learning readiness and metacognitive awareness.
In this research, the effects of different colors (cream, blue and green) used in interior space of school corridors on perceptual performances of students were tried to be determined. For this purpose, the corridors of İncirli Technical and Industry Vocational High School in Ankara was selected as the research environment. Students were requested to evaluate the corridors with three different colors by means of using semantic differentiation scale consisting of 11 adjective pairs. Gained data were statistically evaluated and important results were reached. As a result of this study it was determined that cream colored space is perceived more positively in corridors used different colors compared to blue and green colored space. Also it is seen that beginner students have more positive approaches in their space perceptions compared to students studying in upper classes. According to the data obtained, it is considered that education building will have contributions to strengthen the spatial image perceived by students and may be used to increase the satisfaction of students about their schools.
The aim of this study is to determine the profiles of 6th grade students’ attitudes towards Turkish course and examine the relationships between these profiles and motivations for education. A survey method with exploratory correlational design was adopted in the present study. A total of 374 students voluntarily participated in the study. Profiles of students’ attitudes towards Turkish course were examined through hierarchical cluster analysis; whereas the relationships between these profiles and motivations for education were examined through correlation and logistic regression analyses. The findings demonstrated that the students’ attitudes towards Turkish course can be described through two significant cluster patterns, entitled ‘positive attitude’ and ‘negative attitude’. The findings also demonstrated that intrinsic motivation and amotivation variables were selectively and significantly related to the cluster patterns. Implications for education and directions for future studies were also discussed in the study.
The aim of the study is to convey updated 2013 Preschool Education Program to preschool teachers by means of “Teacher Support Program” developed by the researchers and to examine how this support program process reflect on preschool teachers practices of 2013 Preschool Education Program. This study is an action research and the participants of the study include 19 preschool teachers who are selected from two independent preschool affiliated to Ministry of National Education of Turkey in Eskişehir. Data was gathered by forms developed by researchers to assess knowledge of preschool teachers prior and after the implementation of the program, observation notes from group meetings and teacher interview forms. Data were analyzed with inductive method. Results show that preschool teachers become more competent in planning learning centers after the Teacher Support Program. Moreover, teachers begin to use techniques effectively like capacity technique in learning centers and leading children for different learning centers. Another result of the study indicates that teachers make decisions about classroom observations more elaborately. In addition to these, Teacher Support Program does not just reach the preschool teachers who are participated in study but also other preschool teachers via colleague sharing.
Keywords: preschool education, professional development, teacher, support program, inservice education