One of the most important characteristics that primary teachers should have is respect of differences. Some of these characteristics are shaped during the pre-service training period. The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service primary teachers’ level of respect of differences under the context of some variables. The research is implemented to 501 pre-service primary teachers from the primary education department in the education faculty of a state university located in the Eastern Black Sea Region. The research data were collected from participants in the spring semester 2016-2017 education year using the "Respect of Differences Scale" developed by Öksüz ve Güven (2012). As a result of analyzes, while the total scores of the pre-service primary teachers' respect of differences differs significantly in favor of female students, no difference according to the class level was found. It is also resulted that the respect of differences occurred within the programs is in favor of the students continuing to the pre-school teacher training program. Finally, the total scores of respect of differences differ significantly in favor of social democratic or cultural pluralist participants.
Keywords: respect of differences, pre-service teacher, primary education
The purpose of this study is to determine teachers’ attitudes towards creative drama before and after creative drama practice, the levels of self-efficacy in using creative drama method and the difference between them by enabling in service teachers to learn how to use creative drama as a teaching method through activities. In this context, "Single Group Pre-Test-Post Test Model" was used as an experimental design in the study. A creative drama education was given to 24 teachers that took 24 hours and completed in 4 days. A creative drama attitude scale created by Okvuran (2000) and self-efficacy towards using creating drama method scale created by Can ve Cantürk-Günhan (2009) were used as pre and post test. Data was analyzed by using paired and non-paired samples t-test. Analysis were conducted using SPSS 24 package program. In this way, it was found that there was a significant positive effect of the creative drama activities on the teachers’ attitudes towards crative drama and self-efficacy towards using creating drama. There was no significant effect of gender neither on attitudes towards crative drama and self-efficacy towards using creating drama.
There has recently been increasing interest in teacher learning, opportunities available for professional development of teachers, and teachers’ beliefs regarding professional learning. This study aims to review the literature on what and how language teachers learn through professional learning experiences, what beliefs they hold about the learning experiences they are involved in, and the contribution of professional learning experiences to classroom practice. Following the thematic review of studies on the acquisition of professional knowledge, the scope of professional knowledge, beliefs on professional learning experiences and the impact of learning experiences on classroom practice, the study reveals the results of the exploratory case study carried out with four English language teachers at a public university in Turkey. The results point to the settings for teacher learning, types of learning experiences in the early and recent years in the profession, beliefs on teacher learning and the contribution of that learning to practice.
Keywords: professional knowledge development, teacher beliefs, teacher learning, professional learning experiences
The inclusion of methods and techniques in the learning-teaching process makes it necessary for teachers to identify methods and techniques. The purpose of this study is to determine what the methods and techniques used by classroom teachers in their lessons are. This study is a basic qualitative research. The study group of the study is composed of 30 class teachers working in Ağrı, Antalya, Gaziantep, Kastamonu, Konya, Sakarya, Şanlıurfa, Şırnak and Yozgat in the spring semester of 2016-2017 academic year and accepting voluntarily to participate in the study. Research data was obtained by applying correspondence technique. The obtained data were analyzed by descriptive analysis. In the direction of the aim of the study, the subjects of the methods and techniques used by classroom teachers in Turkish, Mathematics, Life Science, Social Sciences and Science and Technology lessons and the issues that they pay attention while using these methods and techniques have been determined. The teachers of the class stated that they mostly use methods and techniques in Science and Technology and Life Science courses. Classroom teachers frequently use lectures, question-answer, drama and debate in Turkish lessons; Expression, question-answer and problem solving in mathematics lesson; Expression, question-answer and role playing in Life Science lesson; Lecture, question-answer and drama in social studies course; In science and technology class, they used experiment, question-answer and narration. They have associated the reasons for using these methods and techniques with the level of the students and their relevance to their interests and needs. Class teachers see themselves as sufficient in the general sense of using methods and techniques.
Keywords: Classroom teacher, method and technique, lesson.
The aim of this research is to examine the plans, course objectives, contents and learning-teaching and evaluation processes of undergraduate courses in terms of process and product oriented program approaches. The data were obtained through the interviews with 18 students from ten different departments of five universities in three cities. The interviews were conducted with a structured interview form consisting of nine questions about the involvement of students in the planning, determining of course objectives and the content, managing the learning-teaching and evaluation processes. Content analysis of the data showed that students want to participate in the processes of decision making stages of planning, determining course objectives, contents and learning-teaching and evaluation processes. However, student involvement in decision making about all these components of a course is not the case. According to the results of this research, it is found that product oriented approaches are adopted in the decisions of programs of undergraduate programs. It is concluded that in course related decisions students are not participated. It is recommended that further studies should be conducted for the adoption of process-oriented approaches in developing the undergraduate programs.
Keywords: process and product oriented program approaches, higher education programs, program components, students’ opinions
The aim of this study was to identify how much student-centered grammar teaching practices affected grammar success of students in comparison with teacher-centered traditional didactic grammar practices by combining the results obtained from the primary studies. Current study also aimed to present the extent that the success levels of the students differed with respect to education level, sample size, geographical region, type of publication, field of grammar, student-centered approach, method or techniques used in the experimental procedure and the type of publication where the study was reported, which were described as intervening variables. To this end, results of 41 studies which were conducted on the topic and were reported as scientific paper or master’s/doctorate thesis were synthesized by using meta-analysis method. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis v2.0 (CMA) software was used in order to conduct effect size calculations, intervening variable analysis and tests of significance on student success based on the data obtained from the relevant studies. At the end of the study, the effect size of the student-centered grammar practices on student success and corrected effect size were calculated as Hedge g=0,95 and Hedge g=0,708, respectively. These values demonstrate that student-centered grammar teaching practices affect student success vastly and positively. Additionally, the intervening variable analysis indicated that success level of the students did not differ significantly with respect to education level, geographical region, field of grammar, and student-centered grammar teaching practice which was used as an experimental procedure. However, it was found out that sample size variable had a significant effect on the success of the students and success levels of the students in the practices carried out in small samples were higher.
Keywords: Turkish teaching, student-centered grammar, traditional grammar, success, meta-analysis.
This quasi-experimental study investigates the potential benefits of two types of corrective feedback strategies, explicit recasts and prompts, on the acquisition of English third person ‘-s’. Thirty-six language learners in three intact classes from a university in Istanbul were assigned into two experimental groups and a control group and completed communicative tasks that made the use of the target language necessary. The explicit recast was operationalized as repetition of erroneous utterances followed by supra-segmental manipulation where stress and intonation were employed to make the corrective force of recasts salient. Prompts were operationalized as repetition and elicitation. Acquisition was measured through untimed grammaticality judgment tests (UGJT) and oral narration tasks that were administered prior to the instructions, immediately after the instructions and 10 days later. The analysis of data revealed a clear advantage of explicit recast on the oral measures of the immediate posttest, and to lesser extent, the delayed posttest. The findings suggested that 1) recasts, once applied in an explicit manner can have positive impact on the acquisition process, 2) the absence of metalinguistic information may mitigate the effectiveness of prompts, 3) CF efficacy might be mediated by affective factors as well as cognitive ones.
Keywords: corrective feedback, explicit recasts, corrective recasts, prompts, English third person ‘-s’,
Based on the results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015, this study aimed to determine the extent to which affective characteristics such as epistemic beliefs, motivation and self-efficacy predicted students’ performance in science and whether this differed between countries that exhibited different levels of achievement. In accordance with the purpose of the study, two countries were randomly selected from each of the three achievement levels defined by PISA (above average, average, and below average) and all the students that took the test from the selected countries were included in the analysis. A simple linear regression analysis was performed using the IDB Analyzer program, which facilitated the analysis of the layered data collected in this study. According to the results, it was determined that the students' affective characteristics predicted their science performance by 30% regardless of the achievement level.
Difficulties in nonverbal social communication and interaction skills are one of the diagnostic criteria and distinctive features of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this study, it was aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Early Social Communication and Interaction (ESCI) scale, which was developed to assess nonverbal social communication and social interaction skills. Participants of the study consisted of 111 children with ASD aged 28.0-98.0 months. The ESCI scale was administered individually to the children, and interaction behaviors were analyzed by encoding them via video recordings. The validity of the scale was assessed by content and construct validity; reliability was assessed with internal Consistency-Cronbach Alpha and inter-observer reliability. As a result of the principal components analysis to examine the construct validity, the ESCI scale was found to have a one-factor structure which accounts for 72.51% of the variance. It has been determined that the factor loadings of the six measurements in the scale change between .72 and .90. It was found that the scores obtained from the measurements and the average of the total scores increased as the language level became complicated and the internal correlation coefficients between the measurements were significant and changed between .47 and .82. The Cronbach Alpha values for the reliability of the ESCI scale were found to be .87 in total and found to vary between .70 and .93 for the measurements. Findings show that nonverbal social communication and social interaction skills of children with ASD can be assessed with ESCI scale valid and reliable.
Keywords: Early Social Communication and Interaction Scale, autism spectrum disorder, social interaction, nonverbal communication, validity-reliability
The purpose of this study is to; examine life satisfaction and resilience levels of high school students with respect to parental attitudes In addition, whether or not the life satisfaction and resilience levels of students differ with respect to gender and perceived academic achievement was aimed at being examined. The study group consists of 694 students studying in various vocational high schools, religious vocational high schools, private science schools, regular high school and Anatolian high schools in İstanbul and Kocaeli. The Personal Information Form, Life Satisfaction Scale, Resilience Scale and Parental Attitude Scale were used in collecting the data. According to the study findings; relationships were observed between life satisfaction and resilience and with parental attitudes. Positive, weak and significant relationships were detected between democratic parental attitude and life satisfaction and resilience. Weak and negative significant relationships were observed between authoritarian mother and authoritarian father with life satisfaction and resilience. According to our findings, it was observed that life satisfaction and resilience levels do not differ based on gender. Life satisfaction levels of students who perceive their academic achievement low were observed to be lowers than life satisfaction levels of students who perceive their academic achievement low, good and very good. Resilience levels of students who perceive their academic achievement low were again observed to be lower than resilience levels of students who perceive their academic achievement below medium, medium, good and very good. Findings were discussed by relating the results with the studies in the literature.
Keywords: High school students, life satisfaction, resilience, parental attitude
The aim of this study is investigating the effects of multidimensionality on equating results which obtained from separate and concurrent calibration methods. The study was conducted with using simulated data. In the scope of research, totally 32 simulation conditions [4 ( degree of multidimensionality: 1.00, 0.90, 0.75, and 0.50) x 2 calibration methods (separate and concurrent) x 2 (scale transformation methods: Stocking-Lord and Haebara) x 2 (test equating methods)] were examined. Multidimensionality was constructed as assuming the two test forms were measuring Ɵ1 and Ɵ2 abilities. While the simulation condition which has correlation between abilities 1.00 represents the unidimensional case, the correlation between abilities 0.50 represents the severe multidimensional case. Tests were equated under common-item non-equivalent groups design. Equating results were evaluated by using Bias, SD and RMSE evaluation criteria. Under one-dimensional and multidimensional conditions, the results showed that the most biased equating results were provided by concurrent calibration methods. While the multidimensionality was severe the highest random error was provided by SL equating results but while data was unidimensional and the correlation between dimensions were high three methods yielded similar results. Based on RMSE criteria, when data were unidimensional or multidimensionality was not severe characteristic curve methods yielded lower equating error than concurrent calibration method. But when the multidimensionality was severe the equating results from SL method had the highest equating error, equating results from Haebara method had the lowest equating error.
Keywords: Test equating, concurrent calibration, separate calibration, scale transformation methods, multidimensionality.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the flipped classroom contributes to the development of pre-service Turkish teachers’ written expression skills and if it does, the extent of this contribution. To this end, first year students attending the Turkish Teaching Department of Kastamonu University were allocated to an experimental or a control group, 35 students in each, on a volunteer basis and an experimental study was conducted. In this study, the embedded mixed research method was selected. In order to collect the quantitative data, samples of informative and narrative texts were used at the beginning and at the end of the term. The analyses revealed that students in the experimental group demonstrated significantly higher development on both types of texts than the control group students. In order to collect the qualitative data, three students from the experimental group and three students from the control group were selected and their writing processes were video-recorded and then analysed each week. The findings obtained from the analysis of both the quantitative and the qualitative data revealed that the flipped classroom is highly effective in terms of developing the pre-service Turkish teachers’ written expression skills
The study aims to examine the views of male pre-school teacher candidates about difficulties they experienced and problems they think they will encounter in their professional live based on gender. In 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 academic years in Early Childhood Education degree program in Turkey, 137 boys were reached. Participants were asked about their demographic information and views related to challenges they had experienced as a male student in the department and they think they will encounter in their professional lives. Content analysis of the participants' difficulties experienced as a male student in this department reveals that participants had difficulty in personal relations and communication due to being in a minority in the class, they encountered the sexual reaction of the society and the faculty members and those who experienced no difficulties. Content analysis of the difficulties that the participants think they will face in their professional lives shows that parents and society will be prejudiced against male pre-school teachers, concerned about the education system and the loss of performance due to their personal / professional inability, and some did not think they would have any problems. Results and suggestions have been discussed together with similar researches’ findings in gender context.
Keywords: early childhood education, male pre-school teacher candidates, gender, male gender role, choice of profession
The purpose of this study is to examine elementary school students’ perceptions about value and expectancy beliefs towards social studies lesson in terms of different variables. To determine students’ expectancy beliefs and value perceptions towards social studies lesson, the researcher used “The Self and Task Perception Inventory in Mathematics” adapted to social studies lesson by Tünkler and Yurt (2016). Demographic information form was used to obtain students' end-of-term lesson marks and their demographic information. As a result of the research, it was seen that the elementary school students had a low level of expectancy beliefs for social studies lessons and that their expectancy beliefs did not show any significant difference according to gender, but displayed significant differences according to class level and lesson success. It was determined that the participants of the study had a moderate level of value perceptions for social studies lesson. Also, it was found that the students' values perceptions did not show any significant difference according to gender, but displayed significant differences according to class level and lesson success. Finally, there was found a significant relationship between students' expectancy-related perceptions and value perceptions.
Keywords: Expectancy-value theory, motivation, social studies, primary school students
The main purpose of this study is analyzed is to put forward the advice asking networks in an educational organization and compare the formal structure and the informal structure, identify the position of appointed leaders in the network within the social network, the divisions within the network and the informal leaders. This study which is of survey model has been conducted at a higher-education organization in Turkey during the 2014-2015 academic year through the social network analysis approach. In the study, the main data of the analysis has been collected from the web site of the organization and through the semi-structured interview method. Data collected from 41 participants has been analyzed with UCINET 6.0 and presented visually in the graphics. According to the findings of the study, in the formal structure 41 actors and 102 connections and in the informal structure 46 actors and 424 connections have been identified. The findings only 4 of the appointed administrators are informal leaders as well within the network. A total of 45 cliques have been identified within the network, the smallest one consisting of 3.
Keywords: formal and informal organization, organizational structure, leadership, network, advice networks, social network analysis