While the traditional goal of education is to ensure students’ socialization by getting them to accept existing ideologies, rules and practices in a country or society, the ultimate goal of multicultural education is to contribute to the establishment, application and maintenance of social justice and equality and thus ensure a social transformation. This perspective requires a drastic change in education system and curriculum. Moreover, the competencies teachers need to possess naturally differ in this paradigm and it becomes necessary to train teachers and teacher candidates in line with this understanding. The purpose of this study is to form a conceptual framework for critical multicultural education competencies that must be possessed by teachers that will work in multicultural environments. In this literature-based study aiming to establish the cultural competencies of teachers, three dimensions - each with 4 sub-dimensions - were determined and a conceptual framework was formed based on critical multicultural education theory, critical theory and critical race theories.
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework has played an important role in rethinking current teacher education and technology practices both in Turkey and around the world. Due to the recent increase in the number of research studies conducted on TPACK in Turkey, there has been an emerging need to investigate the research on TPACK to evaluate the current literature as well as to guide future research studies. To help better inform teacher educators and researchers, the authors embarked upon a systematic review of 30 research articles published between January 2005 and December 2013 and that investigated the TPACK framework in Turkey’s teacher education contexts. To understand the research trends in the literature the research articles’ contexts, subjects, TPACK approaches, research methods, participants, TPACK based activities, data collection tools, data analysis methods, validity and reliability studies, and main results were analyzed. The results of the study revealed that; surveys were the main data sources used in TPACK research in Turkey, preservice teachers were the most common participant groups, and science and math disciplines were the most common subject domains investigated. The study provides recommendations and research directions to teacher educators and researchers for improving teachers’ effective technology integration knowledge and practices in teacher education programs.
Keywords: Technological pedagogical content knowledge, literature review, teacher education [HTML]
In daily life, while we are walking, sitting or even while we are thinking, we give various conscious or unconscious messages with our hands, arms, facial expressions and clothes. These messages reflect people's feelings, thoughts and attitudes towards a person, an object or a topic. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the teachers' body language use on the learning levels and attitudes of the students. To that end, open-ended questions were asked to 95 students from the Marmara University, Atatürk Faculty of Education, Turkish Education Department, and their views about the positive and negative effects of the teachers' body language use on the learning levels and attitudes of the students were collected. The study was conducted in the survey model and the answers of the students were evaluated using the content analysis method. At the end of the study, it is found that both students' learning levels and attitudes towards the lessons are substantially affected by the teachers' body language.
Keywords: Turkish education, body language, language education. [HTML]
The purpose of this study was to develop Sexual Self-Confidence Scale and to conduct validity and reliability analyses. Participants were 336 married individuals. Exploratory factor analysis has revealed three factors, which are Sexual Self-Disclosure, Sexual Courage, and Sexual Awareness that explain 66.55% of the total variance for 13-item scale. First-order and second-order confirmatory factor analyses provided a good fit to the data. The internal consistency reliability estimate was .88 for overall measure, .90 for Sexual Self-Disclosure Subscale, .84 for Sexual Courage Subscale, and .68 for Sexual Self-awareness Subscale. Furthermore, the present investigation examined the concurrent validity of Sexual Self-Confidence Scale. Correlations were found, suggesting excellent predictability between scales. Corrected item total correlations ranged between .39 and .71 and t-test results that compare upper and lower 27% groups were significant. According to these results, Sexual Self-Confidence Scale emerged as a reliable and valid scale to be employed in psychology fields.
Keywords: Sexual self-confidence scale, validity, reliability [HTML]
The purpose of the study is to identify the relationships between the approaches to learning (deep, surface and strategic) and teacher self-efficacy beliefs of candidate teachers. The data of this descriptive study have been gathered through the administration of two scales (namely Inventory for Approaches to Learning and Teacher Self-efficacy Beliefs Inventory) to 272 candidate teachers studying at Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University. Main findings of the study are: (1) There is a significant positive correlation between deep learning approach orientation and teacher self-efficacy beliefs of candidate teachers. (2) Low correlation has been revealed between strategic learning approach preferences and teacher self-efficacy beliefs of candidate teachers. (3) No significant correlation has been found between learning approach orientation and teacher self-efficacy beliefs of candidate teachers. Within the frame of these results, as deep learning approach leads to more qualified educational outcomes, teacher training institutions are recommended to adopt policies and practices assuring the use of deep learning approach in order to develop higher self-afficacy beliefs of pre-service teachers.
Keywords: Teacher education, approaches to learning, teacher self-efficacy beliefs [HTML]
Using different tools of data collection often leads to controversial results as to what constitutes the best attractor to teaching as a profession. Quantitative survey studies report altruistic reasons as the prevailing factors whereas qualitative studies highlight intrinsic and extrinsic reasons with a possible link to a social desirability bias posed by scales/questionnaires. This paper reports on findings of a study that explored whether/how different tools of data collection yield different entry motivations. 248 student teachers of English at a state university in Ankara completed three different instruments: a qualitative self-report survey form; FIT-Choice Scale (Watt & Richardson, 2007); and a ranking task where participants ranked five most important reasons from the FIT-Choice Scale. The analysis of the data revealed that the qualitative instrument and the ranking task yielded that intrinsic reasons were the best motivators, followed by ability, extrinsic, and altruistic reasons. However, in the FIT-Choice Scale data, the altruistic reasons were the best attractors. This study concludes that the altruistic reasons in the FIT-Choice Scale may have enjoyed an inflated popularity due to their socially desirable properties and that research studies into entry motivations need to take precautions to deal with such a response bias.
Purpose of this study is to investigate measurement equivalence with latent class analysis in different conditions. Latent class analysis is an alternative method when both observed and latent variables are discrete, or continuous but assumptions like normal distribution, homogeneity, unidimensionality are violated. Within the study 28 different conditions were simulated by changing; sample size, number of items, inequivalence type, number of inequivalent items. BIC, CAIC, AIC and AIC3 are used for model selection. In general, for all information criteria, increasing the sample size induced the true decision rate. Number of items did not cause any alteration in true decision rates. In scale level analysis true decision rates increase parallel with the number of inequivalent items. Also when there is inequivalence both in slope and intercept parameters, more true decisions are taken with respect to the case when there is inequivalence only in intercept parameter. In conclusion BIC and CAIC tend to select false negative, AIC tends to select false positive models whereas AIC3 seems to be more consistent.
Keywords: Latent class analysis, measurement equivalence, information criteria, model selection, simulation study [HTML]
The purpose of this study was to develop scales to explore students’ self-regulated learning and teachers’ supportive self-regulated learning behaviors. Two self-regulated learning scales were developed; the first one, “Self-regulated Learning Scale”, administered to the students and the other one, “Supportive Self-regulated Learning Behaviors Scale”, administered to the teachers. For the Self-regulated Learning Scale, data were collected from 840 students. Results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that scale consisted of 4 factor and 59 items. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the scale was .97. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of the factors changed between .90 and .91. The corrected item total correlations ranged .38 and .68. For the Supportive Self-regulated Learning Behaviors Scale, data were collected from 877 teachers. Results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that scale consisted of 4 factor and 53 items. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the scale was .97. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of the factors changed between .91 and .93. The corrected item total correlations ranged .41 and .73. Depending on the results of the confirmatory factor analysis for both scales, fit indices showed that data was appropriate to the proposed model.
This study aims at presenting the opinions of elementary mathematics teachers on the incorrect problem sentences posed by the seventh grade students, with regard to addition of fractions. The study was conducted with 10 elementary mathematics teachers located in the city center of Erzurum province. Data for the study have been collected in two stages. At the first stage, the Problem Posing Test, prepared for addition of fractions, was applied to the seventh grade students. At the second stage, data were collected by applying the interview form, which includes six incorrect problems, to the teachers. The data obtained from both stages of the study has been analyzed through categorical analysis technique, listed under the content analysis types. The results of the study show that the elementary mathematics teachers experienced difficulty in identifying the errors, showing a lower rate of success in problem sentences that include more than one error and made different errors in explaining the errors.
Keywords: Problem posing, addition operation with fractions, elementary mathematics teachers. [HTML]
This paper deals with typical fantastic which emerges in children’s stories when children confuse stories, characters and events. Especially in pre-school period, children perceive the realities within the scope of a unique dimension since they mostly acquire concrete conception at that age. In this period, children firstly perceive concrete realities that they see and which they experience. Abstract indications, images and perceptions are progressively interiorized. These concepts are confused in the first place. In short, children may confuse the realities with their dreams and phantasies. Therefore, this paper analyzes typical fantastic elements arising from the above-mentioned confusion.
This study firstly focuses on the distinction between fantastic genre and fantastic concepts, and then it gives information about the formation and emergence of typical elements. In this study, Paul Maar’s novel Lippels Traum has been analyzed as an example. In this novel, typical confusion appears especially in the inner frame of the story. The child figure in the novel confuses reality with fictional events as well as with events in his dreams. The characters, events, places and time are multi-cultural and possess universal characteristics. The narrator intervenes in transition points between the frameworks, which produces interesting instances of the fantastic. Therefore fantastic has gained individual, social and global characteristics.
Keywords: The fantastic, frame story, confusion, universal features. [HTML]
The aim of this study is to review Turkish studies on school experience and practice teaching conducted between 2000 and 2010 to draw a general picture of teacher training practices in Turkey. The review covers 36 studies (19 research articles and 17 master’s theses and dissertations) on school experience and practice teaching that were categorized by method. 13 out of 19 research articles and 10 out of 17 theses and dissertations have a quantitative research design. Using content analysis, five common themes were generated: (1) Variables related to school experience and practice teaching; (2) positive views on school experience and practice teaching; (3) negative views on school experience and practice teaching; (4) roles and expectations related to school experience and practice teaching; and (5) implications for school experience and practice teaching.
Keywords: School experience, practice teaching, teacher training, Turkey. [HTML]
The Internet, which has become a part of social life, is likely to lead to negative effects on especially children’s development of moral and human values due to its interactive features. The purpose of this study was to examine the development of human values in children with different Internet usage habits. In this respect, the study was carried out with on 521 primary school students attending 6th, 7th and 8th classes. In data analysis, first of all, cluster analysis was conducted in order to determine the categories for the pupils who had similar characteristics in terms of their Internet usage habits. Then, in order to examine each cluster, crosstabs, means, percentages and frequencies were calculated. In addition, to find out whether the cluster means differed significantly with respect to the human values, one way-ANOVA was applied. The results revealed that the children were categorized in four clusters in terms of their average Internet usage time in a day, frequency of online surfing, online learning, online game playing and online surfing. In addition, with respect to human values in general and such values as responsibility, respect and being peaceful, a significant difference was found between the cluster of children using the Internet most and the cluster using it least.
Keywords: Internet usage, human values, child development, cluster analysis [HTML]
The aim of this study was to investigate fifth grade students’ opinions about the learning environments in science and technology courses based on several variables in relation to constructivism. The study was designed based on a survey method. The Constructivist Learning Environment Scale was used as the data collection tool. Arithmetic means, standard deviations, percentage calculations, t-tests and an ANOVA were used in the statistical data analysis. The findings from this study revealed that the fifth grade students regarded learning environments in the science and technology courses to be constructivist at or above a medium level. It was further determined that the students’ opinions about learning environments in science and technology courses did not differentiate according to gender, the number of Science and Technology textbooks in their homes or the educational backgrounds of the students’ mothers. On the other hand, a positive differentiate was identified between the educational backgrounds of the students’ fathers and the students’ opinions about learning environments in science and technology courses. It was also found that learning environments that were aligned with real life, well-equipped homes and school environments had a positive influence on the students’ opinions regarding learning environments.
Keywords: Constructivism, Constructivist Learning Environment, Science and Technology Instruction [HTML]
In this study, it has been examined that polyphonic solfege studies of cooperative learning based on approach "Student Terms Achivement Divisions'' affect the success of the polyphonic solfege. In this research as post-test and pre-test control group with full trial model has been applied. The sample of the study in the academic year 2013-2014 consists of 22 people studying at İnönü University in Class 3. The implementation process covers a 10-week process. According to the method of straight expression have been applied to B the control group while improved programme based on cooperative learning approach have been applied to the experimental group. As a tool for data collection, reliability level .88 is calculated as Musical reading (solfege) performance test. Measurement and evaluation have been carried out by three specialists. After examining the level of normality for analysis of transactions related and unrelated samples t-tests were used. In addition, for calculating of the size of the impact, Cohens' d formula has been applied. According to the results of the research, it has been reached to the conclusion that applications to students based on cooperative learning approach has influenced on the success of the solfege polyphonic positively and highly.
The purpose of this was to evaluate beginning classroom teachers’ problems in their first year. The research was carried out with 529 beginning teachers in cities of İstanbul (Bahçelievler, Bağcılar, Güngören), Şanlıurfa, Van and their districts. Ministry of Education stated most primary teachers in these cities in 2010. data gathered through questionnaires was analyzed by percentage, frequency, arithmetical mean calculations. Consequently following results have been obtained from the research: In relationship with school administrators it has been seen that the most significant problem faced by beginning teachers was that school administrators do not adequately support them, in relationship with city and districts administrators, it was observed that the most significant problem faced by beginning teachers was that city and districts administrator do not support teachers’ creative opinions and suggestions, in relationship with teachers it was found that the most significant problem faced by beginning teachers was that consultant (mentoring) teachers in schools were not adequately interested in beginning teachers regarding their development of professional qualifications, In relationship with students it was determined that the most significant problem faced by beginning teachers was that beginning teachers do not know how to enhance students’ motivation. The problem of beginning primary education teachers was not varied depending on the mission area. While the item “my adviser is interesting with my problem” is perceived by the beginning teachers worked in Şanlıurfa and Van, it is not perceived by the beginning teachers worked in Istanbul.
This study aims to evaluate the elementary mathematics curriculum, developed in 2005, textbooks, pedagogy and students’ attitudes from elementary teachers’ perspective. Teachers cite student-centered pedagogy and making connections between mathematics and real life as the strengths of the new programme and its spiralling nature, denseness and inadequateness of time as its weakness. Majority of the teachers found textbooks insufficient due to the lack of question variety. 57% of the teachers do 4 or more activities per week; yet, only 15.3% say they use a student-centered approach. There is no significant difference between the frequency with which activities are utilized and each of the following: geographical region, school location, teacher’s experience, and class size. Teachers’ claim that while students’ desire to succeed and interest in mathematics is above moderate, their inclination to discover it and prior knowledge is slightly below average.
As the number of speakers from a wide variety of contexts has increased exponentially in recent years, English has come to be used as a lingua franca (ELF), a common language used to communicate by speakers who do not share a common first language. This has led to ELF developing a number of characteristics which distinguish it from ENL (English as a Native Language), and a lively debate has developed regarding the relative merits of ELF versus ENL. The goal of the current research was to begin to explore the practices and perceptions of non-native speakers of English from expanding circle contexts to provide information which might be used to inform policies and practices regarding the teaching and learning of English. Data came from a questionnaire administered to 45 nonnative English speaking teachers from five expanding circle countries, of whom 10 were later interviewed. The results suggested a strong preference for ENL norms. Implications of this finding are discussed, and suggestions made for ongoing research.
Keywords: ELF, lingua franca, ENL, native language, intelligibility. [HTML]
This study centers around the foreign language teaching efficacy (self-efficacy and outcome expectancy) beliefs of foreign language education students. In this survey, data were collected by using a scale adapted to Turkish by Şahin Kaya (2008) after transforming it into “Scale for Efficacy Beliefs on Foreign Language Teaching-Teacher Candidate Version” through confirmatory factor analysis. The study group consists of 185 students attending the 3rd and 4th years of the Department of Foreign Language Education in a state university in Ankara. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), t-Test for Independent Samples, and Kruskal Walls Test. The efficacy belief mean scores of teacher candidates regarding the total score and its sub dimensions (self-efficacy and outcome expectancy) are rather high. Teacher candidates’ belief mean scores did not vary with respect to gender, major, having taken the school experience/ observation class, while the variable of teaching practice/intern ship appeared to be effective on self-efficacy beliefs. The students emphasized the importance of special area efficacy in finding themselves competent.
Keywords: Teacher education, teacher candidate, foreign language teaching efficacy, self-efficacy and outcome expectancy belief. [HTML]
This cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate perceived importance of Slovenian physical education teachers’ (PETs) professional competencies with the aim of diagnosing the main needs of practising PE teachers and preparing continued professional development programmes. For this purpose, a self-administered questionnaire has been designed to examine a wide scope of general and subject-specific competencies among 672 Slovenian PETs. The participants evaluated their own actual professional competencies on a four-level scale. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of internal consistency was used to estimate the reliability of a questionnaire, and factor analysis was used in order to examine an internal structure of competency field. The results point to the high degree of reliability of the entire questionnaire (Cronbach alpha=.97), whereas the values of individual segments of variables vary between .62 and .92. The competency profile of teachers is quite complex, as it consists of 11 factors, which together explain 57.6% of the total variance. Didactic approaches as the subject-specific competencies, which represent the first factor, seemed to be the most informative for PETs, explaining 33.8% of the total variance.
The purpose of this study is to find out the effects of teaching method based on science writing heuristic approach on science process skills. Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) which is an inquiry based approach was developed by Keys, Hand, Prain and Collins (1999). The sampling of our study was comprised of the students from a primary public school in Yalova. The students were 7th graders in the academic year of 2010-2011. A total of 65 students (the experimental group 33 and the control group 32) participated in our study. The Science process skills test developed by Aydoğdu (2006) and whose reliability was 0,81 used as a data instrument in this study. The experimental group performed laboratory activities in science and Technology lessons through science writing heuristics, the control group performed laboratory activities through traditional approach. After the implementation there was a significant difference (p=0,05) between the experimental and the control groups in favor of the experimental group in terms of science process skills such as identifying variables, identifying and stating hypotheses, operationally defining and investigations designing.
Keywords: Science writing heuristic approach, inquiry, science process skills [HTML]
This study tried to examine performance of a chemistry teacher within the context of the special area competencies of chemistry teachers. The method proposed to evaluate the performance of the chemistry teacher consists of three steps. In the first step, the special area competencies of the chemistry teacher were converted into the model estimated by the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. In the second step, the consistency of the local weights of the competencies and pairwise comparisons in the AHP model were determined. In the final, the performance of the chemistry teacher was determined by self-evaluation on the basis of these competencies. Among the competency areas, the relative importance of knowledge in the area of chemistry was found to be higher than that of chemistry literacy. Another finding was that, on the basis of special area competencies, performances of chemistry teachers can be evaluated more objectively with a self-evaluation approach using the AHP technique.
The study aims to determine how the variables of peer deviance, gender, grade level, having too many problems, parental divorce, and guidance by the school counselor about delinquency contribute to predicting delinquency levels in adolescents. The research was conducted upon 277 adolescents (high school students).“The Delinquency Scale”, “The Peer Deviance Scale”, and a “Personal Information Form” were used to obtain data. The collected data were analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The research revealed that the variables of peer deviance, gender, grade level, having too many problems, and parental divorce are significant predictors of adolescent delinquency, while guidance by the school psychological counselor about delinquency does not constitute a significant predictor.